Info

Ca Ce

Calcitriol (1,25-(OH)2-cholecal-ciferol, D-hormone) 158, 262, 268, 278, 290 f., 292 deficiency 290 nuclear receptor 278 PTH effect on formation 290 Calcium ^ also Ca2+ Calcium-binding protein (CaBP)

262, 278, 292 Calcium oxalate, urinary stones 178

Calcium phosphate, solubility product 290 urinary stones 178 Caldesmon 70

Calmodulin 36, 276, 278, 336 smooth muscle 70 photo sensors 350 Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II 36, 50 neurons 336 Caloric equivalent 228 value, physical 228 Calorie 228

conversion into SI unit 374 Calorimetry 228 cAMP ^ AMP, cyclic Canaliculi 248 bile 248 lachrymal 344 parietal cells 242 Canals, semicircular 342 Can sugar ^ saccharose 258 Capacitation of sperm 302, 308 Capacitive current, membrane 48 Capacity, buffering 140

electric, nerve 48 Capillaries 188 blood pressure in 150, 209 B

lung 208 characteristics 188 diffusion processes 208 exchange processes 208, 377 filtration 208 fluid exchanges 208 glomerular 150 peritubular 150, 151 A, 166 permeability 208, 377 pulmonary 106, 122 reabsorption 208 Capsaicin sensors 314, 318 Carbamate, CO2 transport in blood 124 Carbohydrate 226, 228, 246, 258, 282, 296 absorption, intestinal 258 caloric equivalent 228 digestion 258

pancreatic enzymes 246 energy substrate 228 metabolism 282

Cortisol effect 296 nutrition 226 Carbon dioxide ^ CO2 monoxide (CO) 128 Carbonic anhydrase 124,174, 236 gastric 242

inhibitors 142, 172, 344 red blood cells 124 renal 174

salivary glands 236 Y-carboxylation 102 Carboxylesterase 246, 252, 256 Carboxypeptidase 258 Cardia 240

Cardiac (^ also heart) arrest 200

arrhythmias 180, 200 cycle 190 failure 204 muscle 68

output (CO) 70, 74, 122, 136, 186, 188, 204, 206, 218, 220 fetus 220 paralyis 198 valves 190 work 202 Carnosine 158 Carotinoids 350 Carrier 22 affinity to 28 free fatty acids 252 liver cells 250 passive 28 transport 158 CART (cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript) 230 Cartilage 280 Catabolism, cortisol 296 Catalase 14, 96 Cataract 346, 358 Catecholamines 84, 268, 274

receptor types 55 F Catechol-O-methyltransferase

(COMT) 86 Cathode 50

cBAT (canalicular bile acid transporter) 248 CBG (cortisol binding-globulin = transcortin) 296, 303 C cells, parafollicular 36, 286 CCK ^ Cholecystokinin CD4 protein 98 CD8 protein 98 CD28 protein 98 CD40 ligand 98 CD40 protein 98 CD45 receptor 278 CD95 protein (= Fas) 98 Cecum 232, 264 Cell(s) 8 ff.

antigen-presenting (APC) 98

body 42

chief 240

dendritic 96

dedifferentiation 272

differentiation 272

division 8

excitable 42

fat 254

ganglion, retina 344, 358 granular 326 granulosa 300 killer 96, 98 Leydig, interstitial 306 mast 100, 256 membrane 2, 8, 14 apical 18 basolateral 18 function 2, 14 ion conductance 32 proteins 14 structure 14 permeability 2 migration 30, 58 neuroendocrine 266 nuclear pores 10 nucleus 8, 288

structure and function 8 ff. organelles 8 f. pacemaker 244 parietal 240, 242 principal (chief) 162, 180 potential 366 replacement 244 retina 358 Sertoli 306

structure and function 8 ff. T-helper 98 Cellulose 226, 264 Celsius, conversion to °F 375 Centi- (submultiple of a unit) 373 Central blood volume 204 canal 310 chemosensors 126 nervous system (CNS) 303, 310 ff. anatomy 310 autonomic centers 78 venous pressure 186,190, 204 shock 218 Centralization, circulation 218 Centrosome 14

Cerebellum 310, 322, 324,326ff., 328, 342, 360, 370 eye movement 360 lesions 328 nystagmus 360 speech 370 Cerebrosides 14 Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 126, 144, 168, 310 CO2 126, 144

pH 126, 144 Cerebral cortex 310 function, glucocorticoid effect 296

Ceruloplasmin, iron oxidation 90 Cervix uteri 298, 302 menstrual cycle 298 os 298, 303

progesterone effects 303 cGMP ^ GMP, cyclic cGMP phosphodiesterase, retina 348

CGRP (calcitonin gene-related peptide) 214, 234, 306, 318 gallbladder 248 second messenger 274 stomach 242 Chamber, eye 344 Channels, ion 34 Chaperone protein 10 Chemokines 94, 266, 274

receptors 94 Chemosensors 142 area postrema 238 central 126, 132, 144 for glucose 282 respiratory control 132 small intestine 240 Chemotaxis 94, 308 Chenodeoxycholic acid 248 Chest 108

Chest leads (ECG) 196 Chiasma, optic 358 Chief(principal) cells, kidney 162

stomach 240, 242 Chinin, taste 338 Chloramphenicol 250 Chloride ^ Cl-

CHO (cholesterol) 14,114, 254,

268, 294, 303 Cholagogue 248 Cholates (^ also bile salts) 248 Cholecalciferol (calciol = Vitamin D) 260, 292 formation in skin 292 25-OH-cholecaliferol (calcidiol) 158

1,25 (OH)2-cholecalciferol (cal-citriol, D-hormone) 292

Cholecystokinin (CCK) 230, 234, 240, 248 cerebral cortex 332 esophagus 238 gallbladder 248 pancreas secretion 246 receptors gallbladder 248 hypothalamus 330 pancreas 246 stomach 242

types 55 F second messenger 55 F, 276 stomach 242 Cholera toxin 262, 276 Choleresis 248

Cholesterol (CHO) 14, 114, 254, 268,294, 303

bile 248 crystals 248 esters 252, 256 hydrolase 252 LDL254

lipoproteins 254 feces 256 LDL254

lipoproteins 256 membranes 14 micelles 248

steroid hormone synthesis 294 storage 255 B synthesis 256 Cholesterol-7a-hydroxylase 248 Cholic acids (cholates) 248 Choline 82, 160 acetyl transferase 82 nerve terminals 82 receptor ^ cholinoceptors tubular transport 160 Cholinesterase 56

inhibitors 56 Cholinoceptors 82 antagonist 82 heart 194 ionotropic 56

M-types, second messenger

274, 276 nicotinergic 56 salivary glands 236 stomach 242 types 55 F, 56 Chorda tympani 339 C Chorionic gonadotropin, human

(HCG)304 Choroid plexus 310 Christmas factor 102 Chromium (Cr) 226, 228 Chromatin 8 Chromosomes 8

single set (haploid) 306 Chronotropism, heart 194 Chylomicron 254, 260 remnants 254, 256 Chyme 232, 258

pH 240 Chymotrypsin 246, 258 Chymotrypsinogen 246 Cilia, bronchial 58, 110

hair cells 342,364 Ciliary body 70 muscle 344 process 344 zonules 344

Circulation, blood 186 ff., 212 ff. autoregulation 212 Bayliss-effect 212 hormonal 212 myogenic effect 212 neuronal 214 local metabolic effect 212 sympathetic nervous system 214 birth 220

centralisation, flow 214, 218 control 212 coronary 210 fetal 220 portal 232 pulmonary 186, 188 pulse wave velocity 190 regulation 212, 214 ff. resistances 187 A, 188,206 total peripheral resistance 206

venous return 204 cholehepatic 248 enterohepatic 248, 252 bile salts 252 bilirubin 250 Circulatory "center" 214 failure 216

reflexes, homeostatic 216 sensors 214 shock 218 Circumventricular organs 280,

310, 330 11-ris retinal 348 Cisterns, endoplasmic reticulum 10

Citrate 12, 102 complex former 178 cycle 12, 73 B3

inhibition ofblood clotting 102 renal excretion 174 Citric acid ^ citrate Cl- 378

absorption in intestine 262 balance, body 170 channels, lysosomes 14

tubular 162 concentration, intracellular 44 conductance membrane 34, 44 distribution, active/passive 34 equilibrium potential 44 excretion 162 renal handling 156, 162 secretion in intestine 262 in pancreas 246 salivary glands 236 stomach, parietal cells 242 Clarifying factor ^ Heparin Clathrin 14, 28

Clearance factor (heparin) 256 esophagus 238 renal 152

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