Noncholinergic Nonadrenergic Transmitters

In humans, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) serve as co-transmitters in preganglionic sympathetic fibers; neuropeptide Y(NPY) and somatostatin (SIH) are the ones involved in postganglionic fibers. Postganglionic parasympathetic fibers utilize the peptides enkephalin, substance P (SP) and/or NPY as co-transmitters.

Modulation of postsynaptic neurons seems to be the primary goal of preganglionic peptide secretion. There is substantial evidence demonstrating that ATP (adenosine triphosphate), NPY and VIP also function as independent neu-

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