How does diabetes affect the kidneys

Generally, the changes produced in the kidneys by diabetes occur very slowly, taking place over years (Table 2.2, Figure 2.4). If they are recognized early, they can - with the right treatments - be reversed. The changes start, at the onset of diabetes, with an increase in the size of the kidneys and in the amount of blood passing through them. This first, early stage is known as 'the hypertrophy and hyperfunction stage' (stage 1) because of the enlarged kidneys, enriched in blood. Even at this...

How is kidney function measured

When the kidneys are no longer working efficiently, tell-tale signs appear in the blood and the urine - but not until a certain stage. In the Figure 2.3 Scanning electron microscopy shows the various large pores in the basal membrane, through which the blood is filtered. 3 Figure 2.3 Scanning electron microscopy shows the various large pores in the basal membrane, through which the blood is filtered. 3 blood, for example, creatine and urea accumulate. Creatine is a waste product of muscle...

How failing kidney function affects diabetes management

To achieve good blood sugar control in the presence of failing kidney function is a difficult task for patient and doctor. There are various reasons for this. In some people with diabetes the insulin sensitivity changes, for reasons that are often unclear the tissues no longer respond as well to insulin. This can lead to a worsening of the diabetes. Insulin - whether made by the body or injected as a drug - is partly broken down in the kidneys. When the kidneys are not functioning properly,...