Blunt trauma to the scalp and face can produce contusions, lacerations, and abrasions. However, there may be no external signs of trauma to the head if a person has a full head of hair. Obvious external injuries are not necessary for a death to be caused by head trauma.
Battle's sign — bluish discoloration of the skin behind the ear that occurs from blood leaking under the scalp after a skull fracture.
Spectacle hemorrhage (raccoon' eyes) — discoloration of the tissues around the eyes due to a fracture of the skull. The hemorrhages may involve one or both eyes and may be mistakenly interpreted that the decedent had been struck about the face and eyes.
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