When Your Loved One Has Borderline Personality Disorder

Escape Plan From a Borderline Woman

Escape from Damaged Woman book is an eye-opener to all men in the modern society who go through domestic abuse and struggles in a relationship all because they fear to get out of the relationship. The book provides ways through which an abused man can apply and get away from the damaged woman in confidence. Reading the book will help a man recognize and decide that he needs to get away from the damaged woman. He will also know how to prepare and take the real action. Ivan Throne has even gone an extra mile of discussing how to handle fragile days after the escape plan is executed and also ways of making sure that the escape plan is permanent. After conducting a test on Escape Plan from the Damaged Woman, results prove that the book contains contents which are solid and compelling which add value to men and society at large. Continue reading...

Escape Plan From a Borderline Woman Summary

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Functional Analytic Clinical Assessment in Trauma Treatment

Since the establishment of the diagnosis of PTSD in the DSM-III and subsequent updates (American Psychiatric Association, 1980, 1987, 1994, 2000), a considerable volume of literature has been published that describes clinical problems that may be likely to co-occur with PTSD. At the level of diagnostic labels, PTSD is noted to co-occur with depression, anxiety, phobia, and panic disorders perhaps in part because of symptom overlap in diagnostic criteria (Davidson & Foa, 1991). A variety of other diagnostic labels are also associated with PTSD, including substance abuse and Axis II cluster B disorders, such as borderline personality disorders with impulsivity (Foa, Davidson, Frances, & Anxiety Disorders Association of America, 1999).

Norepinephrine transporter polymorphisms

At least 13 polymorphisms of NET have been identified,20 the functional significance of which is unknown. Alterations in the concentration of NE in the CNS have been hypothesized to cause, or contribute to, the development of psychiatric illnesses such as major depression and BPAD. Many studies have reported altered levels of NE and its metabolites NMN and dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG) in the CSF, plasma, and urine of depressed patients as compared with normal controls. These variances could reflect different underlying phenotypes of depressive disorders with varying effects on NE activity. The melancholic subtype of depression (with positive vegetative features, agitation, and increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity) is most often associated with increased NE. Alternatively, so-called atypical depression is associated with decreased NE and HPA axis hypoactivation. In one study, urinary NE and its metabolites were found to be significantly higher in unipolar and...

Growth boundary models 341 Experimental design

The goal of a boundary model is primarily to determine the borderline conditions that prevent growth of the target organism without specific inactivation processes, such as heat, being applied. To develop this type of model we need many points, ideally close to and either side of the boundary, with approximately 50 of the conditions allowing growth and 50 not allowing growth. This gives us the best opportunity to find the position of the boundary and important advantages in data analysis. We need many replicates because the area of greatest interest contains the most marginal conditions for growth. In these conditions the microorganisms are highly stressed and the variability in their growth response is at its highest.

Personality Disorders

Generally, antisocial personality disorder (APD) is the most prevalent personality disorder associated with alcoholism when samples from public treatment centers are studied, and borderline personality disorder (BPD) is the most common disorder in studies from private treatment facilities. In a private psychiatric hospital sample, 57 of substance-abusing patients met DSM-III-R criteria for a personality disorder with BPD being the most commonly occurring personality disorder (Nace, Davis, & Gaspari, 1991).

Guidelines for Client Selection

When selecting clients for ACT who have experienced trauma or who have already been diagnosed with PTSD, there are a number of points to keep in mind. First, the client must be ready (i.e., able to commit to a number of sessions) and willing to undergo an intensive therapy in which the therapist is quite active in session. Second, if the client has problems that would be better treated by a different approach (according to the literature), this approach needs to be implemented first or integrated into the course of ACT. For example, if the client has borderline personality disorder, dialectical behavior therapy should be implemented initially, with ACT brought in during later stages. Finally, a functional analysis of the case should fit the

Research Issues and Problems

Although many of the points stressed in this section may appear obvious, they have been overlooked and continue to be disregarded by investigators in psychopathology. For example, a recent study of borderline personality disorder, with several positive features, also exhibited some of the deficiencies previously discussed (Nurnberg, Hurt, Feldman, & Suh, 1988). Patients for this study were selected from consecutive admissions to a twenty-three bed adult inpatient unit of a university teaching hospital. The criteria used specified an age range of 16 to 45, ''no evidence or history of organic mental disorder, neurologic disorder, substantial concurrent medical illness, mental retardation, or alcohol or drug addiction as a primary diagnosis no DSM-III-R diagnosis of schizophrenia, major affective disorder, paranoid disorder, or schizoaffective disorder and an independent clinical diagnosis of borderline personality disorder by the treatment team'' (p. 1280). All patients also were...

Cognitive Vulnerabilitystress Interaction And Prospective Development Of Depression

Cognitive Vulnerability and Personality Characteristics. In addition to evaluating negative information processing about the self in individuals prone to depression, it is also important to evaluate the relation between cognitive vulnerability to depression and other personality characteristics and disorders. For example, it has been proposed that individuals with negative cognitive styles might be at increased risk for Axis II personality dysfunction (Smith et al., 2004). In support of this hypothesis, previous studies have indicated that comorbidity between depression and personality disorders is high, ranging from 30 to 70 (see Farmer & Nelson-Gray, 1990). In addition, depressed inpatients with comorbid personality disorders, especially borderline personality disorder, have been found to be more likely to exhibit negative cognitive styles than are depressed inpatients without comorbid personality disorders (Rose, Abram-son, Hodulik, Halberstadt, & Leff, 1994). Finally, many...

The Development Of Suppression And Rediscovery Of Trauma Theory

About the prevalence of child sexual abuse by fathers and others, which has held up in current time as a factor for Dissociative Identity Disorder and Borderline Personality Disorder, may have been too much for Freud to accept. Some believe that he experienced a personal crisis and worried about the impact that publishing these findings might have on his career. He has been harshly criticized and condemned by some modern-day writers (Masson, 1984, 1990). According to Masson, the field of psychoanalysis suppressed the truth and did not take seriously patient reports of incest and abuse. Rachman (1997) writes

Persistent Avoidance of Stimuli Associated with the Trauma

The types of avoidance described above could have serious impact on the development of relationship skills involved in ordinary, day-to-day, social interactions as well as those required for intimate relationships, including therapy relationships. Healthy adult functioning involves being able to describe and identify the behavior of others as well as one's own internal reactions. Coping with trauma in a manner that involved externally focused perceptual avoidance could lead to problems such as revictimization. Perceptual avoidance that is directed inward distorts the ability to experience, identify, and describe internal states and may lead to problems of the self and personality disorders (primarily borderline personality disorder Kohlenberg & Tsai, 1991, Ch. 6 Kohlenberg & Tsai, 1993). Finally, the ability to tolerate the arousal that is required for exposure might also be affected, because the person would simply avoid the exposure experience.

Personality Disorder In Hiv Atrisk And Hivpositive Individuals

The diagnosis of personality disorders in the clinic setting must be undertaken cautiously. Making a DSM-IV diagnosis according to Axis II of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR American Psychiatric Association, 2000) requires considerable time and experience, but does little to explain behavior or suggest intervention strategies. Classifying individuals along a continuum of personality traits rather than in DSM-IV Axis II discrete categories has been shown to be a better predictor of HIV risk behavior (Tourian et al., 1997). Furthermore, a diagnosis of antisocial or borderline personality disorder can be stigmatizing, particularly in a general medical clinic where care providers may have less experience managing such patients.

Implications For Medication Adherence

Specifically, individuals high in neuroticism on the EPQ were less likely to be adherent to HAART as their level of perceived stress increased (Bottonari et al., 2005). Neuroticism is the trait that best distinguishes borderline patients from patients without this personality disorder (Morey and Zanarini, 2000). It is not surprising, therefore, that preliminary research on personality disorders and adherence suggests that BPD is associated with nonadherence to HAART. In a convenience sample of 107 triply diagnosed methadone patients (HIV positive with at least one psychiatric diagnosis and at least one substance use diagnosis), only BPD of all the Axis I and II psychiatric disorders was associated with less than 95 adherence in a 3-day recall of medications taken (Palmer et al., 2003).

Categorical Personality Disorders

The Cluster B personality disorders (antisocial, borderline, narcissistic, and histrionic), as described in DSM-IV, demonstrate elevated rates of SUDs (Mors & Sorensen, 1994). Conversely, in patients with SUDs, there is an elevated rate of Cluster B personality disorders, and multiple-substance-dependent patients are more likely to be diagnosed with Cluster B personality disorders than non-multiple-substance-dependent subjects (Skinstad & Swain, 2001). For example, in 370 patients with heterogenous SUDs, Rounsaville and colleagues (1998) found that 57 had an DSM-III-R personality disorder diagnosis, of which 45.7 were Cluster B, including 27 with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and 18.4 with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Borderline Personality Disorder

Treatment Considerations

A., Schulz, S. C., & Grueneich, R. (1993). Impulsivi-ty, coping styles, and triggers for craving in substance abusers with borderline personality disorder. J Personal Disord, 7, 214-222. Trull, T. J., Sher, K. J., Minks-Brown, C., Durbin, J., & Burr, R. (2000). Borderline personality disorder and substance use disorders A review and integration. Clin Psychol Rev, 20, 235-253.

Amy W Wagner Marsha M Linehan

Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) was initially developed for the treatment of chronically suicidal individuals who meet criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD). Because the majority of people with BPD have histories of trauma and meet criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), it seems appropriate to describe DBT in a book on the treatment of trauma. There are two potential applications of DBT to individuals with histories of trauma. One main application is to achieve stabilization prior to initiating exposure-based interventions. DBT is organized into treatment stages the first stage aims to achieve behavioral control, safety, and connection to the therapist. This aim is consistent with the initial goals of other stage-oriented treatments for trauma and PTSD (e.g., Cloitre, 1998 Keane, Fisher, Krinsley, & Niles, 1994). Perhaps more than other treatments, DBT clearly specifies the manner in which stabilization can be achieved. A second potential application of...

Psychiatric Comorbidity And Sequelae

Comorbid Axis II disorders are even more prevalent than Axis I disorders, with rates of personality disorders in cocaine abusers ranging from 30 to 75 in inpatient samples (Kleinman et al., 1990 Kranzler, Satel, & Apter, 1994 Weiss et al., 1993). Cocaine addicts with personality disorders tend to have greater psychiatric severity than those without personality disorders and are also at greater risk for both anxiety and mood disorders (Bunt, Galanter, Lifshutz, & Castaneda, 1990 Stone, 1992). Among cocaine-abusing outpatients, 48 have at least one personality disorder, whereas 18 have two or more (Barber, Frank, Weiss, & Blane, 1996). Even more compelling, 65 of those with a comorbid Axis II diagnosis have a Cluster B disorder, antisocial and borderline personality disorder (BPD) being the most frequent. Patients with BPD have higher levels of polysubstance and cocaine dependence, and also have more personality disorders such as avoidant, antisocial, and dependent personality...

Reliability and Validity of Clinical Diagnosis

Obviously, there are significant differences in validity and reliability of diagnosis among diagnostic categories. In recent years, some of the personality diagnoses such as narcissistic personality disorder or borderline personality disorder have been popularized by several psychoanalyti-cally oriented clinicians and, in part due to this, have been included as distinct disorders in the official nomenclature. Although a definite diagnosis of a borderline condition has always seemed rather illogical to me, apparently it is no problem to many people. However, as some have noted, the category of borderline personality disorder has been used to include a variety of pathological behaviors. ''Exhibiting almost all of the clinical attributes known to descriptive psychopathology, borderline conditions lend themselves to a simplistic, if not perverse, form of diagnostic logic, that is, patients who display a potpourri of clinical indices, especially where symptomatic relationships are unclear...

Comorbidity

Therapists need to be aware of comorbid (and often preexisting) disorders that may be exacerbated by the distress elicited by exposure. Some of the more problematic preexisting disorders include borderline personality disorder and people with psychotic histories. People with these problems can experience marked deterioration, including psychotic episodes, severe dissociative states, and self-destructive tendencies, when confronted with expo

John lennon Imagine

In the North American, ego-psychological milieu, Kernberg (1975) was one of the first mainstreamers to go against received wisdom by daring to draw on Melanie Klein's oeuvre. He usefully incorporated some of her ideas into his theory of borderline conditions and pathological narcissism. His ability to effect such a synthesis may have been facilitated by his having traversed multiple cultures during his lifetime. Born in Vienna, raised in Argentina, he came to professional maturity in the United States. His endorsement of Kleinian concepts made it possible for other ego psychologists to be less closed to these heretofore despised ideas.

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