Reference Inclusion criteria Exclusion criteria
Lang et al., 1994 Rigidity plus one cortical sign (apraxia, cortical sensory loss, or alien limb). Or
Asymmetric rigidity, dystonia and focal reflex myoclonus.
From: Current Clinical Neurology: Diagnostic Criteria in Neurology Edited by: A. J. Lerner © Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ
Kumar et al., 1998 Chronic progressive course, asymmetric onset, presence of: "higher" cortical dysfunction (apraxia, cortical sensory loss, or alien limb).
Movement disorders: akinetic rigid syndrome-levodopa resistant, and limb dystonia and reflex; focal myoclonus.
Qualification of clinical features: rigidity, easily detectable without reinforcement; apraxia, more than simple use of limb as an object, clear absence of cognitive or motor deficit; cortical sensory loss, asymmetric, with preserved primary sensation; alien limb phenomenon, more than simple levitation; dystonia, focal in limb, present at rest at onset; myoclonus, reflex myoclonus spreading beyond stimulated digits.
(Adapted with permission from Litvan I, Bhatia KP, Burn DJ, et al. SIC task force appraisal of clinical diagnostic criteria for Parkinsonian disorders. Mov Dis 2003;18:467-486, and from John Wiley and Sons.)
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