Metabolic Alkalosis

Metabolic alkalosis is the result of an increase in pH and bicarbonate concentration. This may be due to an excessive loss of hydrogen ions or increased administration of bicarbonate. This is most commonly the result of urinary and GI losses. Contraction alkalosis results from excessive diuresis with maintenance of bicarbonate concentration.

• Metabolic alkalosis chloride responsive

Results from a loss of acid (vomiting, NGT suction, villous adenoma of the colon) or potassium depletion (diuretics)

• Metabolic alkalosis chloride resistant

There is a maximal reabsorption of bicarbonate with excessive loss of chloride in the urine (primary hyperaldosteronism, Cushing's disease, exogenous corticosteroids, renal compensation to chronic respiratory acidosis)

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