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Table 9.1. Breast cancer staging

Primary Tu



Primary tumor cannot be accessed


No evidence of primary tumor


Carcinoma in situ


Tumor less than 2 cm


0.5 cm or less


Greater than 0.5 cm but less than 1 cm


Greater than 1 cm but less than 2 cm


Tumor greater than 2 cm but less than 5 cm


Tumor greater than 5 cm


Tumor with direct extension into chest wall or skin


Extension into chest wall


Edema or ulceration of breast skin or satellite skin nodules


Both T4a and T4b


Inflammatory carcinoma

Table 9.2. Breast cancer regional node status

Regional Lymph Nodes

NX Regional lymph nodes cannot be assessed

NO No regional lymph nodes mets

N1 Mets to movable ipsilateral lymph nodes

N1b Mets greater than 0.2 cm

N2 Mets to fixed ipsilateral lymph nodes

N3 Mets to ipsilateral internal mammary nodes

Table 9.3. Breast cancer metastasis

Distant Metastasis

MX Presence cannot be assessed MO No distant mets

M1 Distant mets including ipsilateral supraclavicular nodes

Table 9.4. Breast cancer survival at 5 years


Description Survival %

5 year

Stage O Stage I Stage IIA

Stage IIB Stage IIIA

Stage IIIB Stage IV

Tis, NO, M0 T1, N0, M0 TO, N1, MO T1, N1, M0 T2, N0, M0 T2, N1, M0 T3, N0, M0 T0, N2, M0 T1, N2, M0 T2, N2, M0 T3, N1, M0 T3, N2, M0 T4, Any N, M0 Any T, N3, M0 Any T, Any N, M1


1. Hill ADK, Doyle JM, McDermott EW et al. Hereditary breast cancer. Br J Surg 1997; 84:1334-1339.

2. Meijers-Heijboer H, van Geel B, van Putten WLJ et al. Breast cancer after prophylactic bilateral mastectomy with a BRCA I or BRCA II mutation. NEJM 2001; 345(3):159-164.

3. Frykberg ER. Lobular carcinoma in situ of the breast. Breast 1999; 5(5):296-302.

4. Skinner KA, Silverstein MJ. The management of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. Endo-Rel Ca 2001; 8:33-45.

5. Palmer ML, De Risi DC, Pelikan A et al. Treatment options and recurrence potential for cystosarcoma phyllodes. Surg Gyn Obs 1990; 170:193-196.

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