Table 191 Staging of lung cancer

Staging for Lung Cancer

N2 N3

Distant Metastases (M)

Occult carcinoma (malignant cells in sputum or bronchial washings but tumor not visualized by imaging studies or bronchoscopy)

Tumor 3 cm or less in greatest diameter, surrounded by lung or visceral pleura, but not proximal to a lobar bronchus Tumor > 3 cm in diameter, or with involvement of main bronchus at least 2 cm distal to carina, or with visceral pleural invasion, or with associated atelectasis or obstructive pneumonitis extending to the hilar region but not involving the entire lung Tumor invading chest wall, diaphragm, mediastinal pleura, or parietal pericardium; or tumor in main bronchus within 2 cm of, but not invading carina; or atelectasis of obstructive pneumonitis of the entire lung

Tumor invading mediastinum, heart, great vessels, trachea, esophagus, vertebral body, or carina; or ipsilateral malignant pleural effusion

Metastases to ipsilateral peribronchial or hilar nodes Metastases to ipsilateral mediastinal or subcarinal nodes Metastases to contralateral mediastinal or hilar or to any scalene or supraclavicular nodes

A Disquistion On The Evils Of Using Tobacco

A Disquistion On The Evils Of Using Tobacco

Among the evils which a vitiated appetite has fastened upon mankind, those that arise from the use of Tobacco hold a prominent place, and call loudly for reform. We pity the poor Chinese, who stupifies body and mind with opium, and the wretched Hindoo, who is under a similar slavery to his favorite plant, the Betel but we present the humiliating spectacle of an enlightened and christian nation, wasting annually more than twenty-five millions of dollars, and destroying the health and the lives of thousands, by a practice not at all less degrading than that of the Chinese or Hindoo.

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