Labor abnormalities caused by fetal characteristics passenger

1. Assessment of the fetus consists of estimating fetal weight and position. Estimations of fetal size, even those obtained by ultrasonography, are frequently inaccurate.

2. In the first stage of labor, the diagnosis of dystocia can not be made unless the active phase of labor and adequate uterine contractile forces have been present.

3. Fetal anomalies such as hydrocephaly, encephalocele, and soft tissue tumors may obstruct labor. Fetal imaging should be considered when malpresentation or anomalies are suspected based on vaginal or abdominal examination or when the presenting fetal part is persistently high.

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