Risk factors for preeclampsia

1. Primigravid state.

2. History of preeclampsia.

3. A higher blood pressure at the initiation of pregnancy and a large body size.

4. A family history of preeclampsia is associated with a two to fivefold increase in risk.

5. Multiple pregnancy.

6. Preexisting maternal hypertension.

7. Pregestational diabetes.

8. Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

9. Vascular or connective tissue disease.

10. Advanced maternal age (>35 to 40 years).

C. Late pregnancy screening. Measurement of blood pressure and urine protein at regular intervals in the late second and third trimesters is critical for diagnosis of preeclampsia. A rising blood pressure is usually the first sign of disease. Women should report possible signs of preeclampsia, such as persistent or severe headache, visual changes, right upper quadrant or epigastric pain, sudden large weight gain, or facial edema.

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