Special circumstances

1. Infection or reactive changes. When an infectious organism is identified, the patient should be contacted to determine if she is symptomatic. Antibiotic therapy is indicated for symptomatic infection. Asymptomatic trichomonas infection should be treated. Most patients with only reactive changes due to inflammation will not have an organism identified on Pap smear. The Pap smear does not need to be repeated unless the patient is HIV positive.

2. Atrophic epithelium (a normal finding in postmenopausal women) is often characterized by nuclear enlargement, which meets one of the pathologic criteria for ASC. Administration of estrogen (eg, 0.3 mg conjugated estrogen applied as vaginal cream nightly for four weeks [1/8th of the applicator]) causes atypical atrophic epithelium to mature into normal squamous epithelium.

a. Hormonal therapy given for vaginal atrophy should be followed by repeat cervical cytology one week after completing treatment. If negative, cytology should be repeated again in four to six months. If both tests are negative, the woman can return to routine screening intervals, but if either test is positive for ASC-US or greater, she should be referred for colposcopy.

3. Immunosuppressed women, including all women who are HIV positive, with ASC-US should be referred for immediate colposcopy.

D. Management after colposcopy/biopsy. Colposcopy/biopsy of women with ASC-US will either yield a histologic abnormality (eg, CIN II or III), which should be treated as appropriate or show no abnormal findings. In the latter case, if HPV testing was not performed or showed a low-risk type, then follow-up cytological testing in 12 months is recommended.

1. Management of women who test positive for high-risk HPV types, but have CIN I or less on colposcopy/biopsy consists of HPV testing at 12 months postprocedure with repeat colposcopic referral if the HPV results are positive for high-risk types.

E. Women with ASC-H on cytological examination should be referred for colposcopy. Biopsy proven CIN is treated. If no lesion is identified, the cytology sample, colposcopy, and any biopsy specimens should be reviewed. If review of cytology confirms ASC-H, follow-up HPV DNA testing in 12 months is acceptable. Colposcopy should be repeated for ASC-US or greater on cytology or a positive test for high-risk HPV DNA.

III. Low- and high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia. All women who present with lower genital tract intraepithelial lesions should be offered HIV testing because of the high incidence of neoplasia in this population.

0 0

Post a comment