1. The vaginal pH is typically 4 to 4.5, which distinguishes candidiasis from Trichomonas or bacterial vaginosis. The diagnosis is confirmed by finding the organism on a wet mount; adding 10% potassium hydroxide facilitates recognition of budding yeast and hyphae. Microscopy is negative in 50% of patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis.
2. Empiric therapy is often considered in women with typical clinical features, a normal vaginal pH, and no other pathogens visible on microscopy. Culture should be performed in patients with persistent or recurrent symptoms.
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The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.