Risk factors

A. Any characteristic that increases exposure to unopposed estrogen increases the risk for endometrial cancer. Conversely, decreasing exposure to estrogen limits the risk. Unopposed estrogen therapy, obesity, anovulatory cycles and estrogen-secreting neoplasms all increase the amount of unopposed estrogen and thereby increase the risk for endometrial cancer. Smoking seems to decrease estrogen exposure, thereby decreasing the cancer risk, and oral contraceptive use increases progestin levels, thus providing protection.

B. Hormone replacement therapy. Unopposed estrogen treatment of menopause is associated with an eightfold increased incidence of endometrial cancer. The addition of progestin decreases this risk dramatically.

From PMS To PPD

From PMS To PPD

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