A. Hyperemesis gravidarum occurs in the extreme 0.5% to 1% of patients who have intractable vomiting. Patients with hyperemesis have abnormal electrolytes, dehydration with high urine-specific gravity, ketosis and acetonuria, and untreated have weight loss >5% of body weight. Intravenous hydration is the first line of therapy for patients with severe nausea and vomiting. Administration of vitamin B1 supplements may be necessary to prevent Wernicke's encephalopathy.
References: See page 184.
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