Normal or low serum gonadotropin concentrations and all other tests normal

a. This result is one of the most common outcomes of laboratory testing in women with amenorrhea. Women with hypothalamic amenorrhea (caused by marked exercise or weight loss to more than 10 percent below the expected weight) have normal to low serum FSH values. Cranial MRI is indicated in all women without an a clear explanation for hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and in most women who have visual field defects or headaches. No further testing is required if the onset of amenorrhea is recent or is easily explained (eg, weight loss, excessive exercise) and there are no symptoms suggestive of other disease.

b. High serum transferrin saturation may indicate hemochromatosis, high serum angiotensin-converting enzyme values suggest sarcoidosis, and high fasting blood glucose or hemoglobin A1c values indicate diabetes mellitus.

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