Of the National Osteoporosis Foundation

A. All women should be counseled about the risk factors for osteoporosis, especially smoking cessation and limiting alcohol. All women should be encouraged to participate in regular weight-bearing and exercise.

B. Measurement of BMD is recommended for all women 65 years and older regardless of risk factors. BMD should also be measured in all women under the age of 65 years who have one or more risk factors for osteoporosis (in addition to menopause). The hip is the recommended site of measurement.

C. All adults should be advised to consume at least 1,200 mg of calcium per day and 400 to 800 IU of vitamin D per day. A daily multivitamin (which provides 400 IU) is recommended. In patients with documented vitamin D deficiency, osteoporosis, or previous fracture, two multivitamins may be reasonable, particularly if dietary intake is inadequate and access to sunlight is poor.

D. Treatment is recommended for women without risk factors who have a BMD that is 2 SD below the mean for young women, and in women with risk factors who have a BMD that is 1.5 SD below the mean.

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