Osteoporosis

Over 1.3 million osteoporotic fractures occur each year in the United States. The risk of all fractures increases with age; among persons who survive until age 90, 33 percent of women will have a hip fracture. The lifetime risk of hip fracture for white women at age 50 is 16 percent. Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass, microarchitectural disruption, and increased skeletal fragility.

Risk Factors for Osteoporotic Fractures

Personal history of fracture as an adult

History of fracture in a first-degree relative Current cigarette smoking Low body weight (less than 58 kg [127 lb]) Female sex

Estrogen deficiency (menopause before age 45 years or bilateral ovariectomy, prolonged premenopausal amenorrhea [greater than one year])

White race

Advanced age

Lifelong low calcium intake

Alcoholism

Inadequate physical activity Recurrent falls Dementia

Impaired eyesight despite adequate correction Poor health/frailty

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From PMS To PPD

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