Perforation

a. The risk of perforation is less than 1 in every 1,000 first-trimester abortions. It increases with gestational age and is greater for parous women than for nulliparous women. Perforation is best evaluated by laparoscopy to determine the extent of the injury.

b. Perforations at the junction of the cervix and lower uterine segment can lacerate the ascending branch of the uterine artery within the broad ligament, giving rise to severe pain, a broad ligament hematoma, and intraabdominal bleeding. Management requires laparotomy, ligation of the severed vessels, and repair of the uterine injury.

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