The Secret to Pain Free Breastfeeding
Finally, when taking the dental history, emphasis should be placed on the client's ability to read and to follow directions. Clients with language barriers should be identified, and appropriate written translations should be provided. In addition, client life-style, cultural factors, and income as well as the availability of health insurance and transportation are important factors that may affect adherence with therapy and followup care. The potential for a client being becoming pregnant, and whether a mother is breast feeding her infant should be included in assessments. The age and orientation level, whether learned from personal observation or from discussion with close friends or family members, can be critical in determining potential relationships between drug therapy and or drug interactions. Including these factors in the dental health assessment will assist all on the dental care team to determine the type of therapy and drug delivery system best suited to a particular...
Another potential route of HHV-8 transmission from infected mothers to their infants is via breast milk. A number of human herpesviruses, including cytomegalovirus, EBV, and herpes simplex virus type 1 have been detected in breast milk or shown to be transmitted via breast-feeding. The presence of HHV-8 in breast milk might suggest that this agent may also be transmitted via breast-feeding. A study from Zambia, however, failed to readily detect any HHV-8 DNA in breast milk from HHV-8-seropositive Zambian mothers (both HIV-positive and -negative). In contrast, 21 of the samples
The results of TCDD studies in experimental animals are of concern because humans potentially have their greatest intakes of TCDD and related polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons during development. Breastfeeding infants have been estimated to consume 35-53 pg TCDD toxic equivalents kg body weight day during the first year of life (Schecter et al. 1994). In comparison, various studies have calculated the adult intake to be in the range of 1 or 2 pg TCDD toxic equivalents kg day in Germany (Beck et al. 1989 F rst et al. 1990), the Netherlands (Theelen et al. 1993), and the United States (Schecter et al. 1994). In one study, a nursing infant was found to absorb 96 of the consumed TCDD, since nearly all of ingested TCDD is absorbed (McLachlan 1993). While nursing represents the predominant source of perinatal exposure to TCDD, transplacental exposure also occurs (Korte et al. 1990 Li et al. 1995).
In pharmacoepidemiology, the term'exposed' designates a patient treated by one or more drug(s) under conditions (such as dose or duration) which place him or her at risk for a given adverse effect. This term also applies to indirect exposure (e.g. exposure in utero or an infant's exposure to a drug via breast-feeding). The risk period does not necessarily correspond to the treatment period for an effect with delayed onset (e.g. cancer), subjects are considered at risk (i.e. exposed) even though their treatment dates back several years. In other respects, not every treated subject is necessarily at risk of presenting the effect if it cannot occur until after 3 months of
Finally, herbs should be avoided in certain circumstances. People should avoid herbs if they have multiple medical problems or are taking multiple medications women who are pregnant or breast-feeding and children also should avoid herbs. Some medications have a very specific range in which they are effective and in which they do not have side effects. These include anticonvulsant medications, blood-thinning medications, and some heart medications. Herbs should not be taken with these medications because we do not know all of possible interactions that herbs could have with them. Some herbs could mildly alter the blood levels of these medications and thereby decrease their effectiveness or increase their side effects.
Neonatal nonpoliovirus EV infections are common. In one study, 13 of infants younger than 1 month were infected by an EV during the summer and fall months 21 of infected newborns were symptomatic. Infection was associated with non-breastfeeding and lower socioeconomic status (35,80). EVs were responsible for 65 of hospital admissions of those younger than 3 months with suspected sepsis in the summer and fall in the same community (81). In another report, asymptomatic or symptomatic neonatal EV infections were detected by culture in 5 of infants and by serology in 7 during EV season (69). In a series of neonates evaluated for possible sepsis over a 13-month period, 4 were found to have EV infection by culture or antigen detection (82). Review of cases of neonatal meningitis at one institution found EVs to be the most frequently identified cause between days 8 and 29 of life, comprising at least one-third of cases (83). Overall, estimates suggest that the incidence of neonatal EV...
Infants may be infected in utero through transplacental spread, during labor and delivery through contact with infected blood or secretions in the birth canal, and post-natally through breast-feeding. In countries where women are counseled not to breastfeed, most transmission occurs at the time of delivery. In countries where safe alternatives to breast-feeding are not available for infant nutrition, many infants are infected through breast-feeding. The timing of transmission is defined by the time that HIV-1 is detected in the infant using a standard diagnostic test (20,21). Cord blood should not be used for HIV-1 testing of the infant at birth because of the potential for contamination with maternal blood. If tests that detect the HIV-1 virus, such as an HIV-1 culture or HIV-1 DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, are positive within the first 48 hours of life and subsequent tests are also positive, the transmission is considered to have occurred in utero. However, if the HIV-1...
The infant born to an HIV-1-infected mother will need close follow-up throughout the first year of life. The infant should receive diagnostic testing for HIV-1 according to the schedule outlined in Table 2. ZDV will be administered for the first 6 weeks of life with clinical and laboratory monitoring for adverse effects (68,69). Prophylaxis using trimethaprim-sulfamethoxazole to prevent Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia will be started at 6 weeks of age and continue until two HIV-1 DNA PCR assays done after 1 month of life are negative, one of which is performed after 4 months of age (70,71). The infant should receive routine newborn care and immunizations. At 12 months of age, the first HIV-1 ELISA Western blot assay can be done to determine if maternal antibody has disappeared and if further testing is required.
Infants under the age of 2 years may develop IDA in situations of prolonged unsupplemented breastfeeding or bottle-feeding breast milk has some iron, but cow's milk yields none. During periods of rapid growth in childhood, adolescence, and pregnancy, patients may ingest inadequate supplies of iron. Young women, in particular, are at risk as a result of heavy menses or unwise weight-reduction plans, and in the United States, females have a higher incidence of IDA than do males. During child-bearing years, adult females lose an average of 2 mg of iron daily that must be replaced nutritionally, whereas men lose only 1 mg of iron per day. Women at highest risk for IDA are minority women who live in urban poverty. Elderly patients with a poor diet and people who are alcohol dependent who fail to eat a well-balanced diet may also ingest inadequate supplies of iron.
Uncontrolled reports of cosmetic benefit from applications of topical 0.1 tretinoin cream have been published. Results are encouraging following experience with only a few patients. Double-blind studies with photographic controls are needed. Early experience would suggest this is worth trying, as there is no other effective treatment. Tretinoin should not be used during pregnancy or breastfeeding.
In reviewing breastfeeding history, note if the frequency or regularity of feedings has changed. Fully investigate (1) the length of time the infant spends feeding (2) the time between feedings (3) if the infant is falling asleep at the breast (4) if the infant is sleeping through the night (5) if the infant receives supplementary water, juice, or formula and (6) if the infant receives bottled breast milk.
Breastfeeding, ineffective related to change in feeding patterns, inadequate sucking, incorrect positioning, or infrequent feedings OUTCOMES. Maternal and infant breastfeeding establishment Breastfeeding maintenance INTERVENTIONS. Breastfeeding assistance Emotional support Lactation counseling Nutrition management
Xenobiotics, drugs, and other chemicals have the capability to pass from a mother's blood into breast milk. This could clearly be of great concern for a breast-feeding mother to prevent (accidental) exposure to a baby. There is no formal guideline to assess breast milk transfer, although it is accepted that the most straightforward method is to measure directly concentrations in the milk and blood. These may be extrapolated to others through the use of the milk-to-plasma (M P) ratio. There are clear difficulties in obtaining these values, not least the practical and ethical problems associated with sourcing nursing women to take part in trials. Thus there are few M P data, and it does present a greater emphasis on the modeling of this endpoint.
Many of the immunosuppressive drugs used during pregnancy are also found in breast milk. Currently, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) provides guidelines for breastfeeding based on the excretion rate and potential teratogenic effects of each drug (Tendron et al. 2002). For example, limited concentrations (
Infants born to mothers with TB and infants with TB generally are not considered contagious. There is no need for isolation of the baby except in rare cases of severe pulmonary involvement if the infant has positive AFB smears. Standard precautions should be taken when handling pulmonary or gastric secretions, especially in intubated infants. In cases of suspected maternal pulmonary TB, some experts recommend separating the infant from the mother until contagious disease in the mother can be excluded (13). Others allow limited contact of the mother and infant for breast-feeding and bonding but suggest no rooming-in to reduce exposure time and prophylaxis with isoniazid to protect the infant (13,20).
Commonly through ministries of health. To their credit, these nutritionists had identified two compelling sets of interventions that could be implemented with little involvement from other sectors micronutrient supplementation and breastfeeding. Looking back at the multisectoral experiment, the nutrition community at large seemed to be saying, If the other sectors, development economists, and planners won't cooperate, we'll simply do it ourselves. Orientation and organization Food, health, or an independent identity Even with implicit agreement that nutrition was to be left to the nutrition community, there was a singular lack of agreement on where within that community responsibility should now be lodged. Community-based services focusing on the growth of young children, pregnancy, micronutrients, and breastfeeding (an approach championed by UNICEF) Or was the focus to be on household food availability, food safety, an activated food industry, and food-based approaches to address...
Experimental studies have shown that peripheral blood mononuclear cell sensitivity to allergens exists at birth (Kondo et al. 1992 Prescott et al. 1998 Warner et al. 1994 reviewed in Warner and Warner 2000). In particular, specific allergen-induced responses can be measured in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells as early as 22 weeks into gestation (Jones et al. 1996). Moreover, events after birth are believed to modify the developing immune response in newborns allergens, infections, diet, and gut microbial flora have all been implicated in the development, or not, of subsequent allergy (Warner and Warner 2000). The impact of diet on the development of allergies in newborns is now being recognized. The health benefits cited for breastfeeding include a reduction in childhood asthma (Oddy et al. 2002) and may be directly tied to gut microbial flora (Bjorksten et al. 1999 Holt et al.
The use of botulinum toxin is not recommended in pregnant or breast-feeding patients, and it should also be used under close supervision in patients with disturbed neuromuscular junction transmission, such as in patients with myasthenia gravis or during treatment with aminoglycosides.7
Breast milk is a principal route of transmission of CMV from mother to the child during infancy. Between 27 and 70 of seropositive women shed CMV in breast milk (38,39). It was reported that transmission of CMV to nursing infants of seropositive mothers was related to duration of breastfeeding and detection of CMV in milk by virus isolation (40). The proportion of infants acquiring CMV is directly related to maternal seroprevalence rates and the frequency of breastfeeding.
Cranberry generally is well tolerated. Cranberry may interact with blood-thinning medications, including warfarin (Coumadin). The chronic use of high doses may increase the risk of developing kidney stones and may cause stomach discomfort, loose stools, and nausea. The safety of cranberry use in women who are pregnant or breast-feeding is not known.
Ability of the body to defend against pathogens (Bardare et al. 1993 Devereux et al. 2002). The majority of immunocompromised individuals in the world simply lack nourishment (Janeway Jr. et al. 1997a). Studies implicate maternal diet in development of atopic disease (Bardare et al. 1993 Devereux et al. 2002). Other maternal behaviors such as breastfeeding can decrease risk of allergy, asthma, and autoimmune disease (Bjorksten 1999a Hanson 1998). The benefits of breastfeeding indicate that the neonate's diet plays a significant role in maturation of immune system function.
Acetaminophen codeine (Tylenol 3) 1-2 tab PO q3-4h prn OR Oxycodone acetaminophen (Percocet) 1 tab q6h prn pain. Milk of magnesia 30 mL PO q6h prn constipation. Docusate Sodium (Colace) 100 mg PO bid. Dulcolax suppository PR prn constipation. A and D cream or Lanolin prn if breast feeding. Breast binder or tight brazier and ice packs prn if not to breast feed. Labs Hemoglobin hematocrit in AM. Give rubella vaccine if titer
If you have children, there are a number of things you should know about their nutritional needs. For example, doctors now recommend that infants breast-feed for the first 12 months of their lives. Breast milk supplies better nutrition than commercial formula, promotes brain development, and provides infection-fighting antibodies to help the infant stay healthy. Provide your partner with lots of support and encouragement while she breast-feeds your infant. Note that infants should not begin to drink cow's milk until they are 1 year old because it can cause an allergic reaction and is too concentrated for an infant.
Studies of the potential of breast-feeding transmission have found a very low rate of infection to date (15-18). Discussions about the nonnutritional benefits of breast-feeding should take place before recommending for or against breast-feeding in an HCV-infected mother (11,19,20).
If mastitis has developed, encourage the woman to go to bed and stay there. She should only provide care for her infant, with a focus on frequent feeding and complete rest for her. Encourage the mother to continue breastfeeding frequently. If the infected breast is too sore to allow breastfeeding, gently pumping is recommended emptying the breasts is an important intervention in preventing an abscess. Recommend that the woman massage her breasts before breastfeeding when she feels that her breasts are overly full or were not completely emptied at the previous feeding. In addition, instruct the woman to apply heat to the affected area, followed by gentle massage with the palm of the hand, immediately before feeding the infant to promote drainage. Encourage the woman to remove her brassiere during feedings so that constriction of the ducts does not occur from pressure. Tell the mother that some infants will not nurse on an inflamed breast. This is due to engorgement and edema, which...
Some embryonic and juvenile behaviors are useful and adaptive, and serve specific functions at particular stages of development. Hatching behaviors are a good example (Oppenheim, 1982). Quail embryos make clicking noises in the shell, which helps to synchronize hatching (Vince and Salter, 1967, Vince 1979). More frequent clicks accelerate hatching, and less frequent clicks retard it. In reptiles, birds, and insects, hatching is composed of repeated stereotypical movements that are transient, specific to that stage of life and clearly adaptive. In human babies, the rooting reflex, turning the face toward a touch on the cheek, is a transient reflex important for breast-feeding. It is important to
New Mothers Guide to Breast Feeding
For many years, scientists have been playing out the ingredients that make breast milk the perfect food for babies. They've discovered to day over 200 close compounds to fight infection, help the immune system mature, aid in digestion, and support brain growth - nature made properties that science simply cannot copy. The important long term benefits of breast feeding include reduced risk of asthma, allergies, obesity, and some forms of childhood cancer. The more that scientists continue to learn, the better breast milk looks.