2. Gordon I and Mansfield RA, Subpleural, subpericardial and subendocardial hemorrhages. J Forens Med 1955; 2:31-50.
3. Gilg T et al., Investigations on postmortem coagulation and fibrinolytic reactions in blood. Beitr Gericht Med 1986; 44:399-405.
4. U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Crime in the United States: 1999. Superintendent of Documents, Washington D.C., 2000.
5. DiMaio DJ and DiMaio VJM, Two deaths caused by a lack of oxygen in a water vault. J Forens Sci 1974; 19:398.40 1.
6. Rossen CL et al., Two siblings and recurrent cardiorespiratory arrest: Munchausen syndrome by proxy or child abuse? Pediatrics 1983; 71:715-720.
7. National Safety Council, Accident Facts:1998 Itasca, Ill.
8. Guyton AC and Hall JE, Textbook of Medical Physiology 10th ed. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia 2000.
9. Knight BH, The significance of the postmortem discovery of gastric contents in the air passages. J Forens Sci 1975; 6:229-234.
10. Feldman EA, Traumatic asphyxia: Report of three cases. J Trauma 1969; 9:345353.
11. Roughead W, Burke and Hare, ed 3. Edinburgh, Cited in Polson C, Gee DJ, Knight B: The Essentials of Forensic Medicine, New York, Pergamon Press, 1985.
12. Camps FE and Hunt AC, Pressure on the neck. J Forens Med 1959; 6:116-135.
13. Brouardel P, Cited in Polson CJ, Gee DJ, Knight B, The Essentials of Forensic Medicine. New York, Pergamon Press, 1985.
Ikai M et al., Physiological studies on choking in judo, in Bulletin of the Association for the Scientific Studies on Judo, Part 1, Studies in General, 1958; pp 1-12.
Suzuki E, Medical studies on choking in judo, with special reference to elec-troencephalographic investigation, in Bulletin of the Association for the Scientific Studies on Judo, 1958; pp 23-48.
Rossen R; Kabat H., and Anderson JP, Acute arrest of cerebral circulation in man. Arch Neurology and Psych 1943; 50:510-528.
Rao Vj and Weti CV, The forensic significance of conjunctival petechiae. Am J Forens Med Pathol 1988; 9:32-34.
Harm T and Rajs J, Types of injuries and interrelated conditions of victims and assailants in attempted and homicide strangulations. Forens Sci Int 1981; 18:101-123.
Feigin G. Frequency of neck organ fractures in hanging. Am J Forensic Med. Path 1999; 20(2):128-130.
DiMaio VJM, Accidental hangings due to pacifiers. JAMA 1973; 226:790.
Rauchschwalbe R and Mann NC, Pediatric window-cord strangulations in the United States, 1981-1995. JAMA. 1997; 277:1696-1698. Petruk J et al., Fatal asphyxiations in children involving drawstrings on clothing. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 1996; 155(10):1417-1419.
Casper JL, Handbook of the Practice of Forensic Medicine, vol 2, ed 3, GW Balfour (trans). London, New Syndenham Society, 1982, pp 169-182. Spence MW et al.,. Craniocervical injuries in judicial hangings: an anthropologic analysis of six cases. Am J Forens Med Pathol 1999; 20 (4):309-322.
Hartshorne NJ, Reay DT, Judicial Hanging (letter), Am J Forens Med Pathol 1995; 16 (1):87.
DiMaio VJM, Homicidal Asphyxia, Am J Forens Med Pathol, 2000; 21(1):1-4.
Habal M, Meguid MM, and Murray JE, The long scarf syndrome — A potentially fatal and preventable hazard. JAMA 1972; 221:1269,1270. Weiss S, Baker JP, The carotid sinus reflex in health and disease. Medicine 1933; 12:297-354.
Thomas JE, Hyperactive carotid sinus reflex and carotid sinus syncope. Mayo Clin Proc 1969; 44:127-139.
Simpson K and Knight B, Forensic Medicine, ed 9. Baltimore, Edward Arnold, 1985.
Paparo GP and Siegel H, On the significance of posterior crico-arytenoid muscle hemorrhage. Forens Sci 1976; 7:61-65.
Raven KP, Reay DT, and Harruff RC, Artifactual injuries of the larynx produced by resuscitative intubation. Am J Forens Med Pathol, 1999; 20(1):31-36.
Baselt RC, Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man, 5th ed, Chemical Toxicology Institute, Foster City, 2000.
34. Chandra H et al, Chronic cyanide exposure — A biochemical and industrial hygiene study. J Anal Toxicol 1980; 4:161-165.
35. Uva JL, Review: autoerotic asphyxiation in the United States, J Forens Sci, 1995; 40(4):574-581.
36. Byard RW, Hucker SJ, and Hazelwood RR, Fatal and near-fatal autoerotic asphyxial episodes in women. Am J Forens Med Pathol, 1993; 14(1):70-73.
37. Edwards WD, Gabel WJ, and Hosmer FE, On the physical death of Jesus Christ. JAMA 1986; 255:1455-1463.
38. Reay DT and Eisele JW, Death from law enforcement neck holds. Am J Forens Med Pathol, 1982; 3:253-258.
39. Reay DT and Holloway GA, Changes in carotid blood flow produced by neck compression. Am J Forens Med Pathol, 1982; 3:199-202.
40. Koiwai EK, Deaths allegedly caused by use of "choke holds" (ShimeWazal). J Forens Sci 1987; 32:419-432.
41. Kornblum RN, Medical analysis of police choke holds and general neck trauma: I, II. Trauma, February 1986; 27(51:7-60; June 1986;28(l):13-64.
Was this article helpful?