Chronic renal failure (CRF) is the progressive deterioration of kidney function that reaches 50% or more loss or a creatinine level of less than 2 mg/dl. Causes include congenital kidney and urinary tract abnormalities in children less than 5 years of age, and glomerular and hereditary kidney disorders in children 5 to 15 years of age. The disease involves all body systems as abnormalities include water, Na+, Ca++ losses, K+, HPO2-4,
Mg++ increases, and reduced Hgb and Hct that result in metabolic acidosis, anemia, growth retardation, hypertension, and bone demineralization. Eventually, if untreated, uremic syndrome develops as the kidneys are not able to maintain fluid and electrolyte balance. End stage renal disease (ESRD) is defined as loss of kidney function at 90% or greater. ESRD is the term applied when the kidneys are no longer able to clear wastes from the body. Eventually the disease terminates in death unless kidney transplantation or dialysis is performed.
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