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oxytocin paleocerebellum paleocortex involuntary eye movement apex of the inferior part of the 4th ventricle occurs in cell columns in the visual cortex which receive inputs from only one eye

3rd cranial nerve; supplies medial, inferior and oblique rectus muscles of the eye sense of smell neuroglial cell whose processes coil round neuronal axons; the processes become the myelin sheath neuroglial CNS cells that produce myelin olive-shaped swelling situated bilaterally on the medulla oblongata; a collection of olivary nuclei consisting of the accessory, inferior and superior olivary nuclei period of differentiation and growth see associative learning

(means a covering or lid) part of the temporal cerebral hemisphere that overlaps the insula narcotic substance that contains opium or natural or synthetic derivatives of opium natural or synthetic substance with opium-like effects, although not derived from opium pertaining to eyes or sight

(also called optic chiasm) point of decussation (crossing over) of some of the optic nerves at the base of the brain area adjacent to the fovea on the retina where ganglion axons converge; also called the blind spot because it has no photore-ceptors one of a pair of cranial nerves that arise in the ganglion cell layer of the retina in the eye and which transmit optical information to the visual cortex impression that you are moving backwards even when stationary when something (e.g. a train alongside you) is moving forwards organ of hearing in scala media of the cochlea; it transduces sound waves into electrical impulses oval aperture in the wall that separates the middle and inner ear; the footplate of the stapes vibrates against the oval window and transfers sound waves through the window to the cochlea organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis; a structure in the wall of the 3rd ventricle that may mediate water balance through vasopressin signals hormone secreted into the circulation by the posterior pituitary; causes milk ejection and uterine contraction phylogenetically older portion of the cerebellum concerned with locomotion and postural control (see also archeocerebel-lum)

three-five layers of the olfactory cortex; see also allocortex; ar-cheocortex)

paleostratum parasympathetic parenchyma paresis parietal lobe

Parkinson's disease patch clamping patella

Pavlovian conditioning

P-cells peduncle perforant path periaqueductal gray perikaryon perilymph perineurium peripheral nervous system phagocytic phenothiazines phospholipid photon photopic vision phylogenetic photoreceptor pia mater pilomotor pinna globus pallidus; also called pallidum; phylogenetically older than the striatum; a component of the basal ganglia a division of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) part of a tissue not including the connective or supporting tissues incomplete or partial paralysis part of the mediolateral cerebral hemisphere covered by the parietal bone of the skull progressive degenerative brain disease marked by extrapyramidal symptoms and muscle rigidity; caused by destruction of cells in the basal ganglia technique involving the sucking of a piece of membrane against a microelectrode tip to study the behavior of individual ion channels

(knee cap) triangular flat bone situated at the front of the knee joint; used for the patellar reflex type of stimulus-reflex learning behavioral technique developed by the Russian physiologist Ivan Petrovich Pavlov a type of retinal ganglion cell that transmits information about color and acuity (see also M-cells)

stalk- or stem-like connection e.g. cerebral or cerebellar peduncles nerve fiber tract from the entorhinal area to the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus

(PAG) area of the midbrain nerve cell body; usually means the cytoplasmic compartment excluding the nucleus and any processes fluid that separates the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear from the osseous labyrinth (see also endolymph)

connective tissue sheath encasing a bundle of peripheral nerve fibers nerves and ganglia outside the brain and spinal cord having the function of engulfing cellular debris and micro-organisms (see microglia)

group of antipsychotic drugs e.g. chlorpromazine substance containing fatty acids, phosphoric acid and a nitrogenous base the smallest amount of electromagnetic energy, having no charge and no mass and travels at the speed of light daylight vision refers to the evolution of a species from simpler forms nerve cell responsive to light stimuli (see rods and cones) innermost and most delicate part of the meninges, closely ap-posed to the spinal cord, and highly vascularized hair erection external ear pineal body pituitary planum temporale plexus pons pontine flexure portal system

P-pathway projection proprioceptor prosencephalon prosody pseudo-conditioning ptosis pulvinar punctate

Purkinje cell putamen pyramid pyramidal cell pyramidal nucleus pyretic pyriform pyrogen

(also called the pineal gland) cone-shaped organ in the brain situated between the pulvinar, splenium of the corpus callosum and the superior colliculi; secretes melatonin into the circulation

(also called the hypophysis) gland suspended beneath the hypothalamus; made up of anterior pituitary gland (adenohy-pophysis) and posterior pituitary gland (neurohypophysis) part of Wernicke's area in the temporal lobe that is lateralized in size, being much larger in the left hemisphere network of intersecting blood vessels and nerves means 'bridge'; here, a prominence on the ventral surface of the brainstem between the cerebral peduncles of the midbrain and the medulla oblongata bending of the human fetal brain in the area of the future pons capillary network that carries hormones from the hypothalamus down the pituitary stalk

(P-stream) pathway of inputs from retinal M-cells to the inferior temporal cortex here means the direction forward of a nerve or nerve tract to its destination or termination site sensory receptors in the inner ear, muscle, tendons and joints that respond to changes in body movement and position (also called the forebrain) part of brain including the dien-cephalon and telencephalon phenomenon whereby patients with brain lesions that destroy speech processing and understanding are still able to make sounds and sing see sensitization drooping eyelid due to weakness of levator muscle or paralysis of the 3rd cranial nerve part of the thalamus situated above the lateral and medial geniculate bodies means pointed; here refers to point-by-point innervation of skin by nerve endings e.g. temperature sensing in skin is punctate large neurons that provide efferent fibers from the cerebral cortex part of the lentiform nucleus lateral to the globus pallidus in the corpus striatum describes tissue mass rising to a crest neuron with pyramid-shaped perykaryon in the cerebral cortex gray matter lying between the midline and the olivary nucleus; projects fibers to the cerebellar vermis able to increase body temperature (see also antipyretic) (means pear-shaped) e.g. pyriform cortex; part of the olfactory cerebral cortex any agent that causes fever i.e. temperature rise; examples are bacterial toxins raphe nuclei RAS

Rathke's pouch recessive gene receptive field receptor red nucleus referred pain reflex refractory period repolarization retina retinopic map reticular reticular activating system reticular formation retinal slip retrograde

Rexed's layers of The spinal cord rhinencephalon rhodopsin rhombencephalon rods

(raphe means a seam) nuclei lying in the midline of the mid-brain, pons and medulla oblongata see reticular activating system embryonic depression in the roof of the mouth during the 4th week of embryogenesis; develops into the anterior pituitary gland member of a pair of genes that cannot express itself in the presence of a dominant allele (see dominant gene)

area (e.g. of skin) within which a stimulus must occur in order to activate the fiber that subserves that field structure that receives, recognizes and may transduce a specific stimulus that may be chemical, electrical or physical bilateral motor nuclei in the midbrain tegmentum; called red because of rich blood supply pain felt distant from the site of injury

(means to bend backward; think of a reflected image) here means a reflected movement that may be chemical, electrical or physical, and in the body is an involuntary response to a stimulus period during which a pulse generator such as an excitable nerve membrane is unable to respond to an incoming signal restoration of the membrane potential after depolarization nervous tissue; 10-layered membrane continuous with the optic nerve in the retina; transduces incident light into electrical impulses transmitted to the brain via the optic nerve orderly arrangement of photoreceptors and associated ganglion cells in the retina that makes possible the accurate transmission of the received visual layout to the brain like a net

(RAS) anatomically diffuse CNS system, including the brain stem, hypothalamus thalamus and cerebral cortex that make possible attention, consciousness, introspection and wakefulness diffuse, poorly understood cluster of cells in the brain stem that controls circulation, consciousness, respiration and other processes inability to focus the eyes on an object when turning the head moving backwards e.g. retrograde degeneration of a nerve (see also anterograde)

cytoarchitectural division of the gray matter of the spinal cord into layers or laminae, by the Swedish neuroanatomist Bror Rexed term not much used these days to describe the structures of the limbic and olfactory systems purple pigment that allows the rod cells in the retina of the eye to detect light embryonic posterior primary brain vesicle, giving rise to the me-tencephalon and myelencephalon cells of the retina that detect light through the pigment rhodop-sin (see also cones)

rostral (means beak-shaped) towards the front of the brain or head rubro- prefix meaning red; here refers to the red nucleus, which gives rise to (e.g.) the rubrospinal tract fast alteration in direction of gaze; allows gaze to focus on still object in the visual field when the head moves or turns anteroposterior plane; an imaginary line extending through the midline from the front of the body to the back (see frontal plane, horizontal plane)

referring to the sacrum, defines anatomical location of nerves triangular dorsal bone of the pelvis, wider and shorter in women than in men jumping of action potentials from one node of Ranvier to another chamber of the cochlea, containing the organs of Corti chamber of the cochlea chamber of the cochlea cell that forms the neurolemma

(means split mind) umbrella term for a large group of mental disorders characterized by inability to grasp reality and often gross distortion of it; speech may be affected and hallucination is common; cause is unknown, but may be due to temporal lobe dysfunction and disturbance of brain dopamine metabolism strong outer layer of connective tissue that covers the eyeball one of a group of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), originally described in sheep; the term derives from the behavior of infected sheep that literally scraped off their own wool first chemical mediator that conveys the information that a chemical has bound to its receptor on the surface of the cell fluid-filled, bony loop-like structures in the osseous labyrinth of the inner ear

(also called pseudoconditioning) increased response to a noxious or intense stimulus consists of the subcallosal (beneath the corpus callosum) area and the paraterminal gyrus a group of nuclei lying beneath the septal area a partition double membrane separating the anterior (frontal) horns of the lateral ventricles; separates the corpus callosum and the fornix 5-HT-containing) (see 5-hydroxytryptamine)

bony cranium of the head and skeleton of the face movements of the eyes to track a moving object derived from 'soma', meaning the body; anything to do with the body anything to do with the sensory systems of the body hormone released by the hypothalamus into the pituitary porta) system; inhibits growth hormone release from the anterior pituitary gland (also called growth hormone release inhibitory hormone or GHRIH) Greenstein, Color Atlas of Neuroscience © 2000 Thieme saccadic eye movements sagittal sacral sacrum saltatory conduction scala media scala tympani scala vestibuli Schwann cell schizophrenia sclera scrapie second messenger semicircular canals sensitization septal area septal nuclei septum septum pellucidum serotonergic serotonin skull smooth pursuit somatic somatosensory somatostatin somatotopic somite splenium of the corpus callosum spina bifida spinal cord spinal dysraphism split brain stapes status epilepticus stellate stereocilia stress stretch receptor stria striatum striosomes stripe of Gennari subfornical organ substance P substantia substantia gelatinosa substantia inominata substantia nigra representation of the body or any of its parts in the brain one of a pair of segmented mesodermal tissue masses lying along the length of the neural tube early in embryogenesis; widened posterior part of the corpus callosum incomplete fusion of the neural tube; a congenital defect part of the central nervous system, extending from base of foramen magnum to the upper lumbar region see spina bifida brain in which the corpus callosum has been sectioned ossicle (small bone) in middle ear resembling a stirrup (see also incus and malleus)

dangerous, uninterrupted series of epileptic seizures star-shaped e.g. stellate neuron or ganglion cilia at the apex of the hair cells of the sensory epithelium in the semicircular canals

(biological) any condition of tension in mind, or in physical or chemical system that requires a reaction to reduce tension sensory nerve endings in e.g. muscle spindle specialized to fire off when stretched means a streak also called neostratum because it is phylogenetically the newest part of the corpus striatum; consists mainly of putamen and caudate nucleus areas within the striatum that stain negatively for acetylcho-linesterase, but stain positively for opioid receptors and several neuropeptides thick white band of afferent inputs running through the primary visual cortex, which is why it is also called the striate cortex; named after the Italian physician Francesco Gennari, who discovered it (while still a medical student) structure in the dorsal wall of the 3rd ventricle; mediates drinking behavior via angiotensin signals a neurotransmitter means 'substance' e.g. substantia gelatinosa of spinal cord gray matter; substantia nigra of the midbrain column of small neurons in a column that runs the length of the spinal cord at the apex of the dorsal horn gray matter area under the anterior commissure (subcommissural region); often called the basal nucleus, or nucleus basalis of Mey-nert, after the Austrian neuropsychiatrist; has widespread cholinergic projections to the cerebral cortex; of special current interest since these neurons selectively degenerate in Alzheimer's disease dark band of cells, many being pigmented with melanin, lying between the tegmentum and crus cerebri; destruction of these cells causes Parkinson's disease subthalamus superior colliculi sulcus sympathetic synapse synaptic cleft synaptic plasticity synaptic transmission syndrome Tabes dorsalis tardive dyskinesia tectum tegmentum tela choroidea telencephalon temporal tendon tentorium cerebelli thalamus thermoregulation thoracic thoracic nerves tonsil tract lies beneath the thalamus; correlates optic and vestibular impulses that are relayed to the globus pallidus swellings on posterior surface of midbrain, comprising centers for visual reflexes (see also colliculus; inferior colliculi) shallow furrow or groove on the surface of the cerebral hemisphere division of the autonomic nervous system (ANS)

junction between two nerves or nerve and effector organ where the impulse may be transmitted across chemically or electrically; word coined by the English physiologist Charles Sherring-ton extracellular space between presynaptic nerve terminal and the postsynaptic membrane, across which the neurotransmitter diffuses property of synapses to change their characteristics passage of an electrical impulse across a synapse through transduction to chemical neurotransmitter presynaptically and transduction back to electrical signal postsynaptically collection of symptoms progressive degeneration of the body, especially the dorsal columns and roots of the spinal cord with loss of deep tendon reflexes; caused by syphilis repetitive, involuntary movements, especially in the elderly; an iatrogenic disease caused by prolonged administration with phenothiazines, which disturb CNS dopamine metabolism; can be treated with cholinergic drugs roof of midbrain, comprising the inferior and superior colliculi dorsal part of the pons and most of the midbrain cerebral peduncles vascularized connective tissue membrane continuous with the pia mater part of embryonic brain from which the cerebral hemispheres will develop relates a brain structure to the temporal bone of the skull fibrous, glistening white band of tissue attaching muscle to bone tent-shaped extension of the dura mater that separates the cerebellum from the occipital lobe of the cerebral hemispheres

(means wedding couch) bilateral large oval bodies, part of the diencephalon, making up most of the walls of the lateral ventricle; relay station for sensory inputs to the cerebral cortex control of temperature referring to the chest twelve pairs of spinal nerves in thoracic region of the spinal cord means a small, rounded structure e.g. lymphatic tissue in the oropharynx; here, the name of a lobule that overlies the inferior vermis of the cerebellum group of tissues forming a pathway tractus solitarius transcortical sensory aphasia transcortical motor aphasia transcription transducer transmissible spongiform encephalopathies trapezoid body trigeminal trigone trigones trochlear trophic support

TSE tumor tympanic membrane unconditioned response unconditioned stimulus uncus unipolar depression uveitis uvea uvula vagus nerve vasopressin

(solitary tract) tract of visceral afferent fibers running caudally from the inferior ganglia of the glossopharangeal and vagal nerves to the solitary nucleus a form of Wernicke's aphasia in which repetition is spared a conduction aphasia; patient can understand and repeat verbal language but cannot write dictated language formation of RNA from a DNA template a mechanism that converts one form of energy to another (TSE); a group of neurodegenerative disease (see also BSE)

transverse network of fibers in the pons carrying auditory inputs literally means three born together; refers to the three main divisions of the trigeminal nerve means three-cornered swellings in the 4th ventricle representing the nuclei of the hypo-glossal and vagal nerves means a pulley; refers to the trochlear nerve, which passes through a pulley-like fibrous ring called the trochlea, and which innervates the superior oblique muscle of the eye maintenance of tissue integrity through intercellular influence e.g. muscle integrity is maintained through trophic support of its innervating neuron see transmissible spongiform encephalopathies enlargement or swelling (does not necessarily imply or mean cancer)

(also called the eardrum) a semi-transparent membrane, about 1 cm in diameter, that transmits sound waves from the outer to the middle ear automatic response to an unconditioned stimulus e.g. salivation (unconditioned response) to the sight of food (unconditioned stimulus; see also conditioned response) (also called reinforcement) a stimulus not devised by the experimenter)

(means a hook) hook-shaped anterior end of the hippocampa) gyrus in the temporal lobe mental disorder when the patient is depressed but suffers no manic period (see also bipolar depression) inflammation of the uvea collective name for the choroid, ciliary body and iris (means a grape) part of the vermis of the cerebellum; is also the name of a small process suspended from the posterior border of the soft palate

(means wandering nerve) the 10th cranial nerve; so-called because of its extensive distribution in the thorax and abdomen (also called antidiuretic hormone; ADH) hormone secreted by velum venous plexus ventral horn ventricle vergence vertebra vertebral canal vesicle vestibular vestibular apparatus vestibular nuclei visual cortex visual field vitreous humor voltage clamp wallerian degeneration

Wernicke's area white matter white rami communicantes zona incerta the posterior pituitary; increases water re-absorption in the kidneys and is a potent vasoconstrictor when injected (means a sail or curtain) e.g. inferior medullary velum and superior medullary velum, which form the roof of the 4th ventricle network of veins and venule Anterior columns of spinal cord gray matter means a small cavity, here being one of the various brain cavities filled with CSF

movement of the eyes in different directions (see disconjugate movements)

(vermiform means resembling a worm) median lobe of the cerebellum any one of the 33 bones of the spinal (vertebral) column passage along the spinal (vertebral) column through which the spinal cord travels means a blister; in the nervous system means a small swelling

(vestibule means courtyard) refers to biological chambers inner ear structures concerned with balance nuclei lying in the floor of the 4th ventricle; receive afferents from the vestibular apparatus and relay the information to the cerebellum area of cerebral cortex which occupies lower and upper lips of the calcarine sulcus on the medial surface of each cerebral hemisphere picture received by the retina with both eyes open gel in the posterior chamber of the eye clamping the membrane potential at a fixed value; this enables the electrical behavior of the membrane (e.g. ionic permeabilities) to be studied at chosen values of the membrane potential process of axon degeneration in which the distal portion of a damaged axon fragments; named after Augustus Waller, an English physiologist and physician area in the posterior legion of the temporal lobe described by the German neuropsychiatrist Carl Wernicke, which, when damaged, impaired or destroyed the patient's ability to understand speech, although still able to speak; called Wernicke's aphasia (see Broca's area)

also called white substance; tissue surrounding gray matter in spinal cord, consisting mainly of myelinated nerve fiber bundles, with some unmyelinated fibers, embedded in neuro-glia myelinated preganglionic nerve fiber bundles of the sympathetic nervous system leave the spinal cord in a spinal nerve and enter the paravertebral ganglia through the white rami communicantes (called white because they are myelinated; see also gray rami communicantes)

extension of the reticular formation gray matter into the subthalamus; involved in the control of drinking behavior

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