Psychoactive substances subserve several human functions that can enhance both individual and social existence. On the individual level, desirable ends include the following relief of adverse mental and emotional states (e.g., anticipatory anxiety before battle and social phobia at a party), relief of physical symptoms (e.g., pain and diarrhea), stimulation to function despite fatigue or boredom, and time-out from day-to-day existence through altered states of consciousness. Socially, alcohol and drugs are used in numerous rituals and ceremonies, from alcohol in Jewish Passover rites and the Roman Catholic Mass, to peyote in the Native American Church and the serving of opium at certain Hindu marriages. To a certain extent, the history of human civilization parallels the development of psychoactive substances (Westermeyer, 1999).
Although ceremonial alcohol use is widely appreciated, the ceremonial use of drugs is not so well known. Peyote buttons are a sacramental substance in the Native American Church (Bergman, 1971). Hallucinogen use for religious purposes still occurs among many South American ethnic groups (DuToit, 1977). Supernatural sanctions, both prescribing use within certain bounds and proscribing use outside these bounds, inveigh against abuse of these substances by devotees. Thus, ceremonial or religious use tends to be relatively safe. Examples of abuse do occur, however, such as the occasional Catholic priest who becomes alcoholic, beginning with abuse of sacramental wine.
Several years ago, I began a research project to explore the everyday meaning of parenting. I wanted to hear from parents themselves how they went about parenting activities and what role they felt their children played in shaping those activities. I posted a call for participants in places where parents and children congregate, such as at churches, preschools, and recreation facilities. When I received a response, I set up an interview, typically in the parent's home. When there were two parents, I scheduled separate interview times for them. I spent one to three hours conversing openly with the parents about the parenting process.
His yearbook is always full of nice, sweet things. And when we went on an out-of-state weekend with the youth group from church, Aware of challenges that could result from Mark's size, Rachel took up both types of parenting strategies. Adhering to a preventive strategy, Rachel said that they always ate healthily I didn't use, like, cookies and treats to make him feel better and we didn't keep a lot of that kind of stuff around the house. Rachel encouraged Mark to work out with the wrestling team when football was not in season. But since the largest weight class for wrestlers is 275, Mark was not allowed to compete. However, being permitted to just work out with the team helped to keep him in good physical shape all the same. Promotive strategies included getting Mark involved in Cub Scouts and in youth group activities at their church. But, um, we've been going to the Congregational Church since he's been three. I grew up going to church, but then I did the...
Once on the mainland, Ann worked to earn her GED and then took clerical update training at the local community college. Completing the training, she worked a temporary job and eventually became a full-time office worker in a county social service agency. She began attending church, where she met her husband, Kevin, who was youth pastor at the time. They married and had two daughters. The relationship was fragile Kevin was verbally and physically abusive with Ann and Bane, and he was away from home for long periods of time. Before Kevin finally moved out and took up with another woman thirty-five miles away, Ann discovered that her eldest daughter, Cindy, age eight, had been sexually molested for the third time. ANN It would be a mission, actually. It will be outreach through the church. It would be helping whatever community we're put to live in in Hawaii . Maybe we'll help with orphanages, just a variety, whatever that community needs. They have a grade school on campus and then, oh...
By the 20th century, the use of peyote had extended far beyond its natural homeland. It has been particularly associated with the Plains Indians of the United States. By 1906 there was a loose intercultural network of peyote-using native peoples from Oklahoma in the south to Nebraska in the north. In 1918, with the help of anthropologist James Mooney, the Native American Church, as it was then known, was officially incorporated in Oklahoma. It subsequently became known as The Native American Church of North America in order to accommodate peyote users north of the U.S. border with Canada.
The Red Cross and other organizations put together other initiatives in different parts of the city. The churches were also actively involved. Each collaborating organization brought with it its own unique expertise and resources, and together helped make Operation Recovery the unique organization that it was.
The term spirituality refers to devotion to religious values. Prayer is a component of religious practice that may be used to give thanks to or obtain help from a higher power. Prayer is used to attempt to influence processes and events that are beyond human control, including health and disease. Prayer generally is practiced in conjunction with conventional medical care, but followers of some religions, such as the Christian Science Church, pray in lieu of using conventional medicine.
This shrub is native to the Mediterranean and northwestern India. Dried fruits of Vitex agnus-castus seem to be one of the oldest phytomedicines, dating back to the beginning of European civilization. The Greek name of this plant, lygos (pliable branch), hints at its usage in viticulture for staking vines and in livestock farming for pasture fences. The other Greek expression, agonos, meaning chaste and pure, distinguishes it as a feminine plant of goddesses like Hera, Demeter, and Artemis (Diana), a cult plant of womanliness. Agonos is the source of the medieval name agnus-castus (the chaste lamb). The ancient Greek physicians Hippocrates, Theophrastus, and Dioscorides all made reference to it, as did the Greek-Roman historian Pliny The Elder. Both Dioscorides and Pliny reported its use in suppressing the libido. The Greeks' use closely resembled modern practices they recommended it as an aid in healing of external wounds and complaints of the spleen, and for use in child birth. The...
Frankincense is obtained as a resin from various species of Boswellia in Arabia and the Horn of Africa, specifically B sacra, B. carteri (doubtfully a distinct species from B. sacra), B. frereana, and B. papyrifera. Boswellia are small trees preferring dry, rocky habitats in the mountains, and the resin is obtained as teardrops oozing from cuts on the bark. Its use for incense probably dates from ancient Egypt, although no archaeological material has yet been definitively identified by chemical analysis. Its symbolism as a gift of the Three Wise Men was surely a reference to the holiness of Christ. There is still a heavy demand for incense in Christian churches, whereas medicinal uses are important in China. Olibabum is used as a chewing gum in the Near East.
Indirect effects of maternal cocaine use include negative health consequences for mothers, which then impact their pregnancies. Women using cocaine are more likely to suffer arrhythmias, cardiac ischemias, and hemorrhagic strokes. In addition, they may develop pregnancy complications similar to preeclampsia, including hypertension, headaches, blurred vision, and placen-tal abruption, as well as vascular damage and uterine vasoconstriction, leading to problems such as spontaneous abortion and premature delivery (Church & Subramanian, 1997). Poor maternal weight gain and increased energy demands are another common effect of cocaine use in pregnant women, often leading to decreased birthweights and poorer prenatal nutrition (Church et al., 1991).
Inhibitory serpins function to inhibit their target proteases by presenting themselves to the protease as a pseudosubstrate (Huber and Carrell, 1989 Potempa et al., 1994 Gettins and Olson, 1996 Church et al., 1997). The protease, upon trying to cleave the reactive site bond (P1-P1'), is trapped in a stable 1 1 complex with the inhibitor. The reactive site loop of a serpin is flexible and can adopt a variety of conformations unlike standard-mechanism inhibitors that retain a rigid, canonical conformation (Hopkins et al., 1995 Stein and Carrell, 1995). In the different conformations, the amino terminal portion of the reactive site loop is inserted to various degrees into the A P-sheet. Insertion is not necessary for canonical conformation of the reactive site loop. The residues P10-P15 of the serpin are termed the hinge region (Hopkins et al., 1993). The substitution of residues with larger side chains impedes loop insertion and decreases the rate of stable serpin protease
Proponents of that lifestyle (i.e., members of the deaf world) should as well be truthful with parents about both the pros and the cons that face the child entering their community. Members of the deaf community are bonded by their use of ASL, which is a language separate from English, and not merely English in a manual code. They have their own social and political organizations, participate in Deaf Olympics and Miss Deaf pageants. They marry and raise children and attend churches and theater all within their own ASL-based community. To them it is a rich and rewarding life within, but apart from, mainstream culture.
Religiomania has long served as a cure for dipsomania and narcotomania. Opium addicts in Asia have gone to Buddhist monasteries in the hope that worship, meditation, or clerical asceticism would cure them, which it sometimes did (Westermeyer, 1982). Many Latin Americans and Native Americans with high rates of alcoholism have abandoned Catholicism and Anglicanism in favor of abstinence-prescribing fundamentalist Christian sects and the Native American Church (Albaugh & Anderson, 1974 Hippler, 1973). Children raised in these sects are taught the importance of lifelong abstinence from alcohol and other drugs of abuse. Despite this childhood socialization, those leaving these sects as adults can develop substance use disorders. Thus, the effects of various religions in preventing substance abuse disorders appear to persist only as long as one is actively affiliated with the group.
Lars J S Knutsen began his research career at Glaxo in Ware, Herts., UK having completed an MA in Chemistry at Christ Church, Oxford, in 1978. While at Glaxo he completed a PhD in Nucleoside Chemistry joining Novo Nordisk in Denmark in 1986. While there he led the project that identified tiagabine, a marketed anticonvulsant acting by blocking GABA uptake. In 1997, he joined Vernalis (Cerebrus) in the UK, initiating the adenosine A2A antagonist project that led to V2006, currently in clinical trials with Biogen-IDEC for Parkinson's disease. He joined Ionix Pharmaceuticals Ltd., in Cambridge, UK in 2002 as Director of Chemistry. Dr Knutsen joined the CNS Medicinal Chemistry group at Cephalon Inc. in 2006. He has over 35 peer-reviewed publications and 18 issued US patents.
Programs that specifically target churches, temples, mosques, and other places of worship in order to focus on a captive audience and for easy access to families and the communities for health interventions. Initiating health education and promotion programs in places of worship may be more meaningful and personal to some community groups. The belief is that a broader special population can be reached through faith-based initiatives. Example The church is a hub of social and educational activities for many African American families therefore, it is prudent to extend this influence into areas of health where there is a great need for intervention (Lim, Modeste, & Williams, 2003).
Olaus Magnus, in writing about bears, gives precedence to the white, or Arctic bear, and gives an insight into the religious life of the old Norsemen, who, when converted, thought their most precious things none too good for the Church. If we consider the risk run in obtaining a white bear's skin, and the privations and cold endured in getting it, we may look upon it as a Norse treasure. Silver and Gold have I none but such as I have, give I unto thee. He gives a short, but truthful account of their habits, and winds up his all too brief narration thus These white Bear Skins are wont to be offered by the Hunters, for the high Altars of Cathedrals, or Parochial Churches, that the Priest celebrating Mass standing, may not take cold of his feet, when the Weather is extream cold. In the Church at Nidrosum, which is the Metropolis of the Kingdom of Norway, every year such white Skins are found, that are faithfully offered by the Hunters Devotion, whensoever they take them, and Wolves-Skins...
Participants in a health fair may be drawn from community groups, including the county health department, churches, schools, worksites, hospitals, fire and police departments, medical and dental auxiliaries, health agencies, and associations such as the American Cancer Society, the American Heart Association, and the American Lung Association (Breckon, Harvey, & Lancaster, 1994).
The greatest challenge in the first week was to provide a crisis intervention service to those in greatest need, while sorting out the ragtag army that was to prove so vital in the coming months. One of the collaborating agencies which was church-based organized the 1-day training that enabled the team to adopt a standard format on debriefing and reporting back to headquarters. Three church compounds became walk-in counseling centers in less than a week. We were set to go
Modern observation, and especially Ostrich farming, has thoroughly exploded th old errors respecting this bird. We believe in its powers of swallowing anything not too large, but not in its digesting everything, and certainly not, as Muenster would fain have us believe, that an Ostrich's dinner consists of a church-door key, and a horse-shoe.
The promotion aspect of the health program can be accomplished through the media, distribution of flyers, personal invitations, and word of mouth. The right place must also be found to make the products and services available to the community. Services and products can be offered at community centers, service clubs, tribal halls, churches, and worksites. In addition, health education materials can be made available at supermarkets, public libraries, clinics, and hospital waiting rooms.
Social contacts or interactions people maintain with others on a regular basis, along with family, friends, church members, and others they can rely on, care about, and love. Social support includes any kind of helping behavior that allow individuals to cope better when experiencing serious physical or psychological health problems and the satisfaction that is felt with social relationships.
Second, there have been changes in the way religious institutions deal with divorce. The more liberal religious institutions, such as mainline Protestant denominations and Reform Judaism, have not only come to accept the reality of divorce, but also see it as a viable and reasonable choice on the part of the faithful. Those institutions that have historically been the most negative about divorce, such as the Roman Catholic Church and conservative Protestants, have had to accept the fact that many in the pews already have and others in the future will opt to end their marriages, and these churches have been adapting to this reality.
Serpins are a class of proteins involved in the regulation of serine and other types of proteases (Huber and Carrell, 1989 Potempa et al., 1994 Church et al., 1997). To date, DNA and protein sequencing have identified 400 members of the serpin superfamily (Whisstock et al., 1999). Interestingly, not all serpins are of an inhibitory nature (Remold-O'Donnell, 1993). Noninhibitory serpins include ovalbumin, angiotensinogen, and pigment epithelium-derived factor. In addition to being found in humans, serpins have been found in other mammals, insects, plants, and viruses. In humans, the majority of serpins regulate the functions of proteases involved in the body's response to injury. This includes roles in coagulation, fibrinolysis, inflammation, wound healing, and tissue repair (Huber and Carrell, 1989 Potempa et al., 1994 Church et al., 1997). Serpins have been implicated in various animal and human pathologies by the loss of a functional serpin gene through deletion or mutation, which...
Genes that are determined to be coregulated via expression experiments may have common regulatory sequences. If working with a fully sequenced genome, it may be reasonable to search for regulatory sequences upstream of the genes, or common motifs in the genes themselves. This works on fully sequenced organisms, and while it has been shown by many people to work well on small organisms, it has not been validated on large organisms due to the lack of finished sequence data. GeneSpring provides a quick and easy search for common upstream sequences for oligonucleotides up to a specified length, typically eight or nine bases. This works well for yeast, but will not necessarily work well for higher organisms because of the more complex regulatory structures. George Church's group from Harvard uses more complex and much slower algorithms that also work well for yeast and may perform better when the regulatory sequences are very long and do not contain well conserved sequences (Roth et al.,...