The Mantel Haenszel estimate

The estimate of the SE( loge HR) given in equation 9.19 is not always reliable in situations when the total number of events in the study is small. A preferred estimate of the SE involves more extensive computation at each death time and requires the calculation of the variance, called the hypergeometric variance, V. This gives an alternative estimate of the hazard ratio and an alternative test called the Mantel-Haenszel test. The estimate of the hazard ratio is given by

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