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levels of hopelessness should mediate this relation. Findings from the CVD project have supported this hypothesis (Abramson et al., 1998). Specifically, HR participants were more likely than were LR participants to have a prior history of suicidality. HR participants also had higher levels of suicidality across the first 2% years of follow-up than did LR participants, and this relation was maintained even after statistically controlling for participants' prior history of suicidality and for other risk factors for suicidality (i.e., prior history of DSM-III-R and/or RDC MD, RDC MiD, borderline personality dysfunction, antisocial personality dysfunction, and parental history of depression). This relation was mediated by the participants' mean levels of hopelessness across the 2%-year follow-up.

Thus, both retrospective and prospective results from the CVD project have supported the vulnerability hypothesis of the cognitive theories of depression. Specifically, participants with negative cognitive styles were more likely to have had a past episode of MD and HD and were more likely to experience both first onsets and recurrences of MD, MiD, and HD during the 2%-year follow-up than were participants with positive cognitive styles. Importantly, the risk group differences were not due to residual differences between the groups in levels of depressive symptoms. Similarly, participants with negative cognitive styles were more likely to have a past history of suicidality and higher levels of suicidality across the 2%-year follow-up than were participants with positive cognitive styles. The CVD project findings are important because they provide the first demonstration that, as predicted by the cognitive theories of depression, negative cognitive styles confer risk for full-blown, clinically significant depressive disorders and suicidality. The results also provide support for the hypothesis that the subtype of HD exists in nature and conforms to theoretical description.

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