Note: BDI = Beck Depression Inventory; HMI = Halberstadt Mania Inventory; DAS = Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale; ASQ = Attributional Style Questionnaire; NC = Negative Composite; PC = Positive Composite; SPQ = Self Perception Questionnaire; Nor = Normal; Dep = Depressed; Hyp = Hypomanic. The mood states refer to those of the cyclothymic participants; dysthymics were in a depressed state at both Times 2 and 3; hypomanics were in a hypomanic state at both Times 2 and 3; normals were in a normal state at all 3 times. Means with differing subscripts in each row (letters a-d) or each column (letters x-z) differ at p < .05. Adapted from "Cognitive Styles and Life Events in Subsyndromal Unipolar and Bipolar Mood Disorders: Stability and Prospective Prediction of Depressive and Hypomanic Mood Swings," by L. B. Alloy, N. Reilly-Harrington, D. M. Fresco, W. G. Whitehouse, J. S. Zechmeister, 1999, Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly, 13, p. 30. Adapted with permission from Springer Publishing Co.
nitive vulnerabilities (negative attributional styles and dysfunctional attitudes) featured in the cognitive theories of unipolar depression showed considerable stability across large changes in naturally occurring mood states. This is in contrast to the results of at least some studies of remitted bipolar and unipolar patients described earlier. Alloy et al. speculated that participants' cognitive styles showed stability across mood swings in their study because they had a sample of untreated individuals. In most of the prior remitted depression studies involving treated samples, cognitive styles may have improved as a treatment by-product rather than as a naturally occurring result of symptom remission without intervention. Finally, whereas cyclothymics exhibited similar distal negative cognitive styles (attributional styles, dysfunctional attitudes) across mood states, their proximal cognitions (self perceptions) varied as a function of current mood state and were more positive in a hypomanic than in a depressive period. This suggests that whereas bipolar individuals may exhibit negative cognitive styles that are relatively stable, they may also possess more latent positive self-schemata that are only activated in positive mood states (see also Eich et al., 1997). Future studies need to examine this proposal directly.
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