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Note: CSQ = Cognitive Style Questionnaire; Neg = Negative Events Composite; Pos = Positive Events Composite; DAS = Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale; PE = Performance Evaluation; AO = Approval by Others; SAS = Sociotropy Autonomy Scales; S = Sociotropy; CD = Concern about Disapproval; AS = Attachment/Separation; PO = Pleasing Others; A = Autonomy; IA = Individualistic Achievement; MF = Mobility/Freedom from Control; SP = Solitary Pleasures; DEQ = Depressive Experiences Questionnaire; Dep = Dependency; SC = Self Criticism; SCS = Self-Consciousness Scale; Pri = Private; Pub = Public; SA = Social Anxiety; RSQ = Response Styles Questionnaire; Rum = Rumination; Dis = Distraction. Means with differing subscripts in each row differ by at least p < .05. From Depressive Cognitive Styles and Bipolar Spectrum Disorders: A Unique Behavioral Approach System (BAS) Profile? by L. B. Alloy, L. Y. Abramson, P. D. Walshaw, et al., 2004.

descriptive depression-relevant than nondepression-relevant adjectives and predicted that they would be more likely to behave in depressionrelevant than nondepression-relevant ways in the future than did remitted unipolar and control participants, and these differences were not attributable to any effects of treatment.

Two studies used a longitudinal design to investigate the stability of cognitive styles across the naturally occurring mood swings of individuals with bipolar mood disorders. Eich, Macaulay, and Lam (1997) noted that recall of autobiographical memories was more negative in the depressed than the manic state in a group of 10 rapid cycling bipolar patients. Alloy, Reilly-Harrington, et al. (1999) assessed attributional styles and dysfunctional attitudes, as well as state cognitions about the self, in 13

cyclothymic, 8 dysthymic, 10 hypomanic, and 12 normal control undergraduates on three separate occasions as the different mood states characteristic of their disorder naturally occurred. At Time 1, all groups were assessed in a normal mood state. At Time 2, cyclothymics and dysthymics were in a depressed period, hypomanics were in a hypomanic period, and normals were in a normal mood state. At Time 3, dysthymics were in another depressed period, cyclothymics and hypomanics were in a hypomanic period, and normals were in a normal mood state. The interval between each of the sessions averaged 4.7 weeks, with a range of from 1 to 9 weeks.

Alloy, Reilly-Harrington, et al. (1999) reported analyses on participants' depression and hypomanic symptom scores that indicated that, as intended, they had been successful in assessing participants in the different mood states appropriate to their diagnoses at each time point (see Table 4.2). Consistent with the hypothesis that attributional styles and dysfunctional attitudes would be stable across participants' mood swings, Alloy et al. found that the group x time interaction was not significant, although there was a main effect of group (see Table 4.2). As shown in Table 4.2, across mood states, cyclothymics' and dysthymics' dysfunctional attitudes and attributional styles for negative events did not differ from each other and both groups had more negative cognitive styles than hypomanics and normal controls, whose scores also did not differ from each other. In contrast, the more statelike cognitions about the self did differ as a function of current mood state. Whereas the four groups did not differ on self-perceptions at Times 1 or 3, at Time 2, when cyclothymics and dysthymics were in a depressed state and hypomanics were in a hypomanic state, dysthymics' and cyclothymics' thoughts about the self did not differ from each other, but were more negative than those of hypomanics and normal controls. Also, cyclothymics' self-referent thoughts were more negative when they were depressed (Time 2) than when they were either hypomanic (Time 3) or in a normal mood (Time 1).

The Alloy, Reilly-Harrington, et al. (1999) findings are intriguing in several respects. First, in contrast to cyclothymics, hypomanic participants, who have no depressive episodes as part of their phenomenology, showed much more positive attitudes and attributional styles, similar to those of normal controls. This suggests that the cognitive styles of unipolar mania/ hypomania may be quite different and more positive in character than ma-nia/hypomania in the context of a history of depression. Further studies are needed that examine other cognitive processes and information-processing biases in bipolar versus unipolar manic/hypomanic groups to determine whether unipolar manic/hypomanic individuals exhibit more positive cognitions in general than do individuals who experience mania or hypo-mania in the context of a history of depressive episodes. Second, the cog-

TABLE 4.2 Means and Standard Deviations for Study Measures as a Function of Mood State







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