The hopelessness theory (Abramson et al., 1989) proposes that negative cognitive styles confer vulnerability to HD, specifically, rather than to other subtypes of depression. Supporting this hypothesis, studies have found that negative cognitive styles, both alone and interacting with negative life events, are more strongly related to depressive symptoms hypothesized to be part of the HD symptom cluster (see Table 2.2) than to symptoms not part of the HD symptom cluster (Alloy & Clements, 1998; Alloy et al., 1997; Hankin, Abramson, & Siler, 2001; Joiner et al., 2001; Metalsky & Joiner, 1997) or to symptoms of other forms of psychopathology (Alloy & Clements, 1998). In addition, preliminary analyses based on the first 2^> years of prospective follow-up in the CVD project indicated that cognitive risk predicted first onsets and recurrences of HD (as described earlier), but not DSM melancholic depression.
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