Rhonda F Souza and Stephen J Meltzer 1 Introduction

The insulin-like growth factor II (IGFII) growth control pathway is comprised of three major components IGFII ligand, insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGFIR), and insulin-like growth factor II receptor (IGFIIR). IGFIR and IGFIIR work together to maintain constant circulating levels of IGFII. IGFII is a potent mitogen, produced by epithelial cells, which stimulates cell growth and prevents apoptosis by binding to IGFIR (1,2). IGFIR is a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase family (3)...

Wael ElRifai and Sakari Knuutila 1 Introduction

A vast amount of genome sequencing data has become available over the past few years and methods to facilitate high-throughput analysis of large sets of genes and samples have been developed to localize novel genes related to human cancer. As advanced robotic applications have made it possible to manufacture high-precision microarrays on glass or membranes, pioneering scientists have introduced several variants of the array technology oligonucleotide arrays 1 , DNA microarrays CGH arrays 2 ,...

Sam Thiagalingam 1 Introduction

The signaling pathways mediated by the transforming growth factor-P TGF-P family of factors are implicated in a wide array of biological processes including cell differentiation and proliferation, determination of cell fate during embryogenesis, cell adhesion and cell death. The recent discovery of the SMAD family of signal transducer proteins as mediators of TGF-P relaying signals from cell membrane to nucleus has revolutionized the understanding of the molecular basis of these processes 1,2 ....