Nicotine

Nicotine is an alkaloid found in tobacco, and is responsible for its pharmacological effects and addiction. Contact dermatitis from nicotine, considered as rare, has been more frequent since its use in transdermal systems. Irritant dermatitis is mainly encountered, as contact urticaria seems to be rare. Allergic contact dermatitis, sometimes generalized, has been reported, with positive patch testing to nicotine base (10 ethanol or petrolatum). No consequences have been reported in patients who...

Zinc Pyrithione Zinc Omadine

CAS Registry Number 13463-41-7 and more than 20 others The sodium salt of N-hydroxy-2-pyridinethiones has germicidal activity against yeasts and fungi. Sodium omadine is a 40 aqueous solution of sodium pyrithione. It is used in the metallurgical industry as a component of water-based metalworking fluids, of aceto-polyvinyl lattices, water-based printer's ink, a lubricant for synthetic fibers and anti-dandruff shampoos. Zinc pyrithione is widely used in anti-dandruff shampoos and is a classic...

Usnic Acid dUsnic Acid lUsnic Acid

CAS Registry Number 125-46-2 (CAS Registry Number 7562-61-0 , CAS Registry Number 6159-66-6 ) Usnic acid is a component of lichens, also used as a topical antibiotic. Allergic contact dermatitis from lichens occurs mainly occupa-tionally in forestry and horticultural workers, and in lichen pickers. Aalto-Korte K, Lauerma A, Alanko K (2005) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from lichens in present-day Finland. Contact Dermatitis 52 36-38 Hahn M, Lischka G, Pfeifle J, Wirth V (1995) A case...

Toluene25Diamine

P-Toluylenediamine, p-Toluenediamine Toluene-2,5-diamine is a permanent hair dye involved in contact dermatitis in hairdressers and consumers. It does not cross-react with PPD, but co-sensitization is frequent. Frosch PJ, Burrows D, Camarasa JG, Dooms-Goossens A, Ducombs G, Lahti A, Menne T, Rycroft RJG, Shaw S, White IR, Wilkinson JD (1993) Allergic reactions to a hairdresser's series results from 9 European centres. Contact Dermatitis 28 180-183 Guerra L, Tosti A, Bardazzi F, Pigatto P, Lisi...

Tetrazepam

Tetrazepam is a benzodiazepine compound used systemically as a myorelaxant. It may induce skin rashes such as maculo-papular eruption, Stevens-Johnson syndrome or photosensitivity. Occupational sensitization can be observed in pharmaceutical plants. Sensitization generally does not concern other benzodiazepines (personal observations). Barbaud A, Trechot P, Reichert-Penetrat S, Granel F, Schmutz JL (2001) The usefulness of patch testing on the previously most severely affected site in a...

Sodium Pyrosulfite Disodium Disulfite E223 CAS Registry Number [7681574O O

This agent is frequently used as a preservative in pharmaceutical products, in the bread-making industry as an antioxidant, and it can induce contact dermatitis. It can be used as a reducing agent in photography and caused dermatitis in a photographic technician, probably acting as an aggravating irritative factor. Sodium metabisulfite contains a certain amount of sodium sulfite and sodium sulfate. Acciai MC, Brusi C, Francalanci Giorgini S, Sertoli A (1993) Allergic contact dermatitis in...

PVPHexadecene Copolymer

PVP hexadecene copolymer, another PVP copolymer used for identical applications as PVP eicosene copolymer, has been rarely implicated in contact dermatitis. De Groot AC, Bruynzeel DP, Bos JD, van der Meeren HL, van Joost T, Jagtman BA, Weyland JW (1988) The allergens in cosmetics. Arch Dermatol 124 1525-1529 Scheman A, Cummins R (1998) Contact allergy to PVP hexadecene copolymer. Contact Dermatitis 39 201

Propyl Gallate

This gallate ester (E 311) is an antioxidant frequently used in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries to prevent the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids into rancid-smelling compounds. It causes cosmetic dermatitis mainly from lipsticks and induced contact dermatitis in a baker, and in a female confectioner, primarily sensitized by her night cream, who fried doughnuts -the margarine probably containing gallates. Bojs G, Niklasson B, Svensson A (1987) Allergic contact dermatitis to...

Primin

Primula Obconica Hance

Primin is the major allergen of Primula obconica Hance (Primula-ceae family). Allergic contact dermatitis is mainly occupational, occurring in florists and horticulturists. Christensen LP, Larsen E (2000) Direct emission of the allergen primin from intact Primula obconica plants. Contact Dermatitis 42 149-153 Lamminpaa A, Estlander T, Jolanki R, Kanerva L (1996) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by decorative plants. Contact Dermatitis 34 330-335 Pristinamycin IA (Streptogramin B,...

Pivampicillin

Pivampicillin Hydrochloride CAS Registry Number 26309-95-5 Pivampicillin is a prodrug of ampicillin. It caused sensitization in 56 workers at a penicillin factory. Pivampicillin and pivmecillinam were responsible for contact dermatitis in pharmaceutical production workers. Ampicillin, mecillinam or amdinocillin, penicillin V and penicillin G were also implicated in cross-reactions. Moller NE, von W rden K (1992) Hypersensitivity to semisynthetic penicillins and cross-reactivity with penicillin....

Parthenolide

Front Crawl Legs

Parthenolide is a sesquiterpene lactone found Asteraceae-Com-positae such as feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium Schultz-Bip.) or congress grass (Parthenium hysterophorus L.). Hausen BM, Osmundsen PE (1983) Contact allergy to parthenolide in Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz-Bip. (feverfew, Asteraceae) and cross-reactions to related sesquiterpene lactone containing Compositae spe-cies.Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 63 308-314 Lamminpaa A, Estlander T, Jolanki R, Kanerva L (1996) Occupational allergic...

Nonylphenol Ethoxylates PEGn Nonyl Phenyl Ether Polyoxyethylene n Nonyl Phenyl Ether

CAS Registry Number 26027-38-3 and more than 25 other numbers CAS Registry Number 26027-38-3 and more than 25 other numbers Their general formula is C9H19C6H4(OCH2CH2)nOH. Each non-oxynol is characterized by the number (n) of ethylene oxide units repeated in the chain for example, nonoxynol-9, nonoxynol-14. They are present in detergents, liquid soaps, emulsifiers for creams, fabric softeners, photographic paper additives, hair dyes, lubricating oils, spermicides, and anti-infective agents....

H H

Ethylbutylthiourea is an accelerator used with other thiourea derivatives in the production of neoprene rubber. It is also contained in glues, mainly neoprene type. Bergendorff O, Persson CML, Hansson C (2004) HPLC analysis of alkyl thioureas in an orthopaedic brace and patch testing with pure ethylbu-tylthiourea. Contact Dermatitis 51 273-277 Kanerva L, Estlander T, Jolanki R (1994) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by thiourea compounds. Contact Dermatitis 31 242-248 Roberts JL,...

Doxepin

This benzoxepin tricylcic drug has antidepressant, anticholin-ergic, anti-itching, and antihistamine properties. After oral use, it has been developed as a topical anti-itching agent. Allergic contact dermatitis is not infrequent. Buckley DA (2000) Contact allergy to doxepin. Contact Dermatitis 43 231-232 Taylor JS, Praditsuwan P, Handel D, Kuffner G (1996) Allergic contact dermatitis from doxepin cream. One-year patch test clinic experience. Arch Dermatol 132 515-518 1-Chloro-2,3-Epoxypropane...

Diphencyprone

2,3-Diphenylcyclopropenone CAS Registry Number 886-38-4 Diphencyprone is a potent contact allergen used in topical immunotherapy, to treat some severe alopecia areata. It is responsible for occupational contact dermatitis in chemists and dermatology department staff. Sansom JE, Molloy KC, Lovell CR (1995) Occupational sensitization to diphencyprone in a chemist. Contact Dermatitis 32 363 Temesv ri E, Gonz lez R, Marschalk M, Horv th A (2004) Age dependence of diphenylcyclopropenone...

Dipentamethylenethiuram Disulfide

A rubber chemical contained in thiuram mix. The most frequent occupational categories are the metal industry, homemakers, health services and laboratories, and the building industry. Conde-Salazar L, Del-Rio E, Guimaraens D, Gonzalez Domingo A (1993) Type IV allergy to rubber additives a 10-year study of 686 cases. J Am Acad Dermatol 29 176-180 Conde-Salazar L, Guimaraens D, Villegas C, Romero A, Gonzalez MA (1995) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis in construction workers. Contact...

DihydroxyN3Hydroxypropyl33Dimethylbutanamide Pantothenylol NPantoyl3Propanolamine Panthenol Pantothenyl Alcohol

Pan(to)thenol is the alcohol corresponding to pantothenic acid, of the vitamin B5 group. It is used as a food additive, and in skin and hair products as a conditioning agent. Contact dermatitis and urticaria have been reported. Schalock PC, Storrs FJ, Morrison L (2000) Contact urticaria from panthe- nol in hair conditioner. Contact Dermatitis 43 223 Stables GI, Wilkinson SM (1998) Allergic contact dermatitis due to panthenol. Contact Dermatitis 38 236-237

Diallyl Disulfide

Diallyl disulfide is one of the major allergens in garlic (Allium sativum) and onions. Among patients patch-test-positive to garlic, all 13 who were tested had positive reactions to diallyl sulfide 5 pet. Bruynzeel DP (1997) Bulb dermatitis. Dermatological problems in the flower bulb industries. Contact Dermatitis 37 70-77 Lamminpaa A, Estlander T, Jolanki R, Kanerva L (1996) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by decorative plants. Contact Dermatitis 34 330-335 McFadden JP, White...

Decorative Cosmetics Sunscreens Toiletries Tables 4 and

Many allergens are included in the standard series, the series for vehicles, emulsifiers, and preservatives. Fine fragrances may contain ingredients that are not present in commercially available test compounds. Perfumes in alcoholic solutions can be tested as is -occasionally slight irritant reactions (erythema without infiltration) might occur the frequency of these reactions can be reduced by allowing the patch to dry before applied to the skin 15 . Table 4 .Testing of decorative cosmetics...

Cyclohexen1one

This strong sensitizer has been responsible for chemical burning followed by sensitization in a chemistry student. Goossens A, Deschutter A (2003) Acute irritation followed by primary sensitization to 2-cyclohenen-1-one in a chemistry student. Contact Dermatitis 48 163-164 A rubber accelerator chemical. The most frequent occupational categories are metal industry, homemakers, health services and laboratories, and the building industry. Conde-Salazar L, Del-Rio E, Guimaraens D, Gonzalez Domingo...

Cooh

Ketoprofen is an anti-inflammatory drug, used both topically and systemically. It is above all a photoallergen, responsible for photo- allergic or photo-worsened contact dermatitis, with sun-induced, progressive, severe, and durable reactions. Recurrent photosensitivity is possible for many years. Photosensitivities are expected to thiophene-phenylketone derivatives such as tiaprofenic acid and suprofen, to ketoprofen esters such as piketoprofen, and to benzo-phenone derivatives (see above)...

Cinnamic Aldehyde Cinnamaldehyde 3Phenyl2Propenal CAS Registry Number [104552

This perfumed molecule is used as a fragrance in perfumes, a flavoring agent in soft drinks, ice creams, dentifrices, pastries, chewing-gum, etc. It can induce both contact urticaria and de-layed-type reactions. It can be responsible for dermatitis in the perfume industry or in food handlers. Cinnamic aldehyde is contained in fragrance mix.As a fragrance allergen, it has to be mentioned by name in cosmetics within the EU. Nethercott JR, Holness DL (1989) Occupational dermatitis in food handlers...

Cincaine Cinchocaine Percaine Sovcaine

CAS Registry Number 85-79-0 (CAS Registry Number 61-12-1 ) Dibucaine hydrochloride is an amide group local anesthetic that can induce allergic contact dermatitis. Erdmann SM, Sachs B, Merk HF (2001) Systemic contact dermatitis from cinchocaine. Contact Dermatitis 44 260-261 Nakada T, Iijima M (2000) Allergic contact dermatitis from dibucaine hydrochloride. Contact Dermatitis 42 283

Acrylates And Chalazion

Kanerva L, Lauerma A, Estlander T, Alanko K, Henriks-Eckerman ML, Jolanki R 1996 Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by photobonded sculptured nails and a review of meth acrylates in nail cosmetics. Am J Contact Dermat 7 109-115 Kiec-Swierczynska MK 1996 Occupational allergic contact dermatitis due to acrylates in Lodz. Contact Dermatitis 34 419-422 Rustemeyer T, Frosch PJ 1996 Occupational skin diseases in dental laboratory technicians. I . Clinical picture and causative factors....

Polyvinylpyrrolidone Iodine PVPIodine

Povidone-iodine is iodophor, used as a topical antiseptic. A 10 povidone-iodine solution contains 1 available iodine, but free-iodine is at 0.1 concentration. Skin exposure causes irritant rather than allergic contact dermatitis. In such a situation however, iodine seems to be the true hapten. Lachapelle JM 2005 Allergic contact dermatitis from povidone-iodine a re-evaluation study. Contact Dermatitis 52 9-10 Tosti A, Vincenzi C, Bardazzi F, Mariani R 1990 Allergic contact dermatitis due to...

Octocrilene

Octocrylene is an anti-UVB filter used in cosmetics that may induce photoallergic contact dermatitis. Carrotte-Lefebvre I, Bonnevalle A, Segard M, Delaporte E, Thomas P 2003 Contact allergy to octocrylene. Contact Dermatitis 48 46-47 Octyl gallate, a gallate ester E 311 , is an antioxidant added to foods and cosmetics to prevent oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. Cases were sparsely reported in food industry or from lipsticks. Patch tests are frequently irritant. De Groot AC, Gerkens F 1990...

Cocamide DEA Coconut Oil Fatty Acids Diethanolamide NNbis2Hydroxyethyl Coco Fatty Acid Diethanolamide Cocoyl

Cocamide DEA, manufactured from coconut oil, is widely used in industry and at home as a surface-active agent. It is contained in hand gels, hand washing soaps, shampoos, and dish-washing liquids for its foam-producing and stabilizing properties, and in metalworking fluids and polishing agents as an anticorrosion inhibitor. Fowler JF Jr 1998 Allergy to cocamide DEA.Am J Contact Dermat 9 40-41 Kanerva L, Jolanki R, Estlander T 1993 Dentist's occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by...

Info

CAS Registry Number 97-54-1 c s-isoeugenol Isoeugenol is a mixture of two cis and trans isomers. It occurs in ylang-ylang and other essential oils. It is a common allergen of perfumes and cosmetics such as deodorants, and is contained in fragrance mix. Its presence in cosmetics is indicated in the INGREDIENTS series. Substitution by esters such as isoeugenyl acetate not indicated on the package does not always resolve the allergenic problem, because of the in vivo hydrolysis of the substitute...

Dictionary of Contact Allergens Chemical Structures Sources and References

Bisphenol Epoxy Diacrylate

Le Coz, Jean-Pierre Lepoittevin This chapter has been written in order to familiarize the reader with the chemical structure of chemicals implicated in contact dermatitis, mainly as haptens responsible for allergic contact dermatitis. For each molecule, the principal name is used for classification. We have also listed the most important synonym s , the Chemical Abstract Service CAS Registry Number that characterizes the substance, and its chemical structure. The reader will find...