Nicotine

Nicotine is an alkaloid found in tobacco, and is responsible for its pharmacological effects and addiction. Contact dermatitis from nicotine, considered as rare, has been more frequent since its use in transdermal systems. Irritant dermatitis is mainly encountered, as contact urticaria seems to be rare. Allergic contact dermatitis, sometimes generalized, has been reported, with positive patch testing to nicotine base (10 ethanol or petrolatum). No consequences have been reported in patients who...

Zinc Pyrithione Zinc Omadine

CAS Registry Number 13463-41-7 and more than 20 others The sodium salt of N-hydroxy-2-pyridinethiones has germicidal activity against yeasts and fungi. Sodium omadine is a 40 aqueous solution of sodium pyrithione. It is used in the metallurgical industry as a component of water-based metalworking fluids, of aceto-polyvinyl lattices, water-based printer's ink, a lubricant for synthetic fibers and anti-dandruff shampoos. Zinc pyrithione is widely used in anti-dandruff shampoos and is a classic...

With the Patients Own Products

Frosch, Johannes Geier, Wolfgang Uter, An Goossens Commercially available patch test kits (standard series and various supplementary series) are the basis of a diagnostic work-up if an allergic contact dermatitis is to be confirmed. However, various investigators have shown that this way of testing is not sufficient. Menn et al. 20 found in a multicenter study that the European Standard Series detects only 37-73 of the responsible allergens in patients with contact dermatitis. The...

Vitamin E Acetate dlVitamin E Acetate d

CAS Registry Number 7695-91-2 , CAS Registry Number 58-95-7 Tocopherol and tocopheryl acetate are used mainly as antioxidants. Tocopheryl acetate, an ester of tocopherol (vitamin E), can induce allergic contact dermatitis. De Groot AC, Berretty PJ, van Ginkel CJ, den Hengst CW, van Ulsen J, Weyland JW (1991) Allergic contact dermatitis from tocopheryl acetate in cosmetic creams. Contact Dermatitis 25 302-304 Matsumura T, Nakada T, Iijima M (2004) Widespread contact dermatitis from tocopherol...

Usnic Acid dUsnic Acid lUsnic Acid

CAS Registry Number 125-46-2 (CAS Registry Number 7562-61-0 , CAS Registry Number 6159-66-6 ) Usnic acid is a component of lichens, also used as a topical antibiotic. Allergic contact dermatitis from lichens occurs mainly occupa-tionally in forestry and horticultural workers, and in lichen pickers. Aalto-Korte K, Lauerma A, Alanko K (2005) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from lichens in present-day Finland. Contact Dermatitis 52 36-38 Hahn M, Lischka G, Pfeifle J, Wirth V (1995) A case...

Sodium Pyrosulfite Disodium Disulfite E223 CAS Registry Number [7681574O O

This agent is frequently used as a preservative in pharmaceutical products, in the bread-making industry as an antioxidant, and it can induce contact dermatitis. It can be used as a reducing agent in photography and caused dermatitis in a photographic technician, probably acting as an aggravating irritative factor. Sodium metabisulfite contains a certain amount of sodium sulfite and sodium sulfate. Acciai MC, Brusi C, Francalanci Giorgini S, Sertoli A (1993) Allergic contact dermatitis in...

Ranitidine

Ranitidine Hydrochloride CAS Registry Number 66357-59-3 Ranitidine, an H2-receptor antagonist, can cause contact dermatitis within the pharmaceutical industry and in healthcare workers, or may induce systemic drug reactions in patients. Martinez MB, Salvador JF, Aguilera GV, Mas IB, Ramirez JC (2003) Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis induced by ranitidine hydrochloride. Contact Dermatitis 49 47 Romaguerra C, Grimalt F, Vilaplana J (1988) Epidemic of occupational contact dermatitis from...

Propranolol

Propranolol is a beta-blocking agent that was responsible for the sensitization of workers in drug synthesis. In one case, epichlor-hydrin was used for the production of drugs propranolol and oxprenolol. Cross-reactivity is expected between beta-blockers. Pereira F, Dias M, Pacheco FA (1996) Occupational contact dermatitis from propranolol, hydralazine and bendroflumethiazide. Contact Dermatitis 35 303-304 Rebandel P, Rudzki E (1990) Dermatitis caused by epichlorhydrin, Oxprenolol hydrochloride...

Pivampicillin

Pivampicillin Hydrochloride CAS Registry Number 26309-95-5 Pivampicillin is a prodrug of ampicillin. It caused sensitization in 56 workers at a penicillin factory. Pivampicillin and pivmecillinam were responsible for contact dermatitis in pharmaceutical production workers. Ampicillin, mecillinam or amdinocillin, penicillin V and penicillin G were also implicated in cross-reactions. Moller NE, von W rden K (1992) Hypersensitivity to semisynthetic penicillins and cross-reactivity with penicillin....

ONitrop Phenylenediamine Onpd Ci 76070 CAS Registry Number [5307142 NH2

ONPD is a hair dye and a sensitizer in hairdressers and consumers who are generally sensitive to PPD too. Frosch PJ, Burrows D, Camarasa JG, Dooms-Goossens A, Ducombs G, Lahti A, Menne T, Rycroft RJG, Shaw S, White IR, Wilkinson JD (1993) Allergic reactions to a hairdresser's series results from 9 European centres. Contact Dermatitis 28 180-183 Guerra L, Tosti A, Bardazzi F, Pigatto P, Lisi P, Santucci B, Valsecchi R, Schena D,Angelini G, Sertoli A,Ayala F, Kokelj F (1992) Contact dermatitis in...

Omite

The pesticide omite principally acts as an irritant. Contact dermatitis was reported in 40 of 47 agricultural workers using Omite . Nishioka K, Kozuka T, Tashiro M (1970) Agricultural miticide (BPPS) dermatitis. Skin Res 12 15 O'Malley M, Rodriguez P, Maibach HI (1995) Pesticide patch testing California nursery workers and controls. Contact Dermatitis 32 61-62

Oh Oh

Chlorhexidine is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent, a synthetic biguanide antiseptic and disinfectant, available under different forms (diacetate, dihydrochloride, and mostly digluconate). It is also used as a biocide in several topicals and cosmetics. It may cause allergic contact dermatitis, photosensitivity or even fixed drug eruption, mainly after prolonged and repeated applications in health workers, leg ulcer, and leg eczema patients. Immediate-type reactions have been reported contact...

Oh

Occupational cases of contact dermatitis were reported in the pharmaceutical industry. Ekenvall L, Forsbeck M (1978) Contact eczema produced by a-adrenergic blocking agent (Alprenolol). Contact Dermatitis 4 190-194 Amethocaine is a local anesthetic used in dental surgery. It was reported as an agent of contact dermatitis in dentists or dental nurses, and in ophthalmologists. Berova N, Stranky L, Krasteva M (1990) Studies on contact dermatitis in stomatological staff. Dermatol Monatschr 176...

O

Kanerva L, Estlander T, Jolanki R, Tarvainen K (1993) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by exposure to acrylates during work with dental prostheses. Contact Dermatitis 28 268-275 Kanerva L, Lauerma A, Estlander T, Alanko K, Henriks-Eckerman ML, Jolanki R (1996) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by photobonded sculptured nails and a review of (meth) acrylates in nail cosmetics. Am J Contact Dermat 7 109-115 Kiec-Swierczynska MK (1996) Occupational allergic contact...

NPhenyl2Naphthylamine Neozone

CAS Registry Numbers 135-88-6 , 52907-17-2 , 84420-28-0 Phenyl-beta-naphthylamine is an amine compound. Sensitization was reported in patients with hypersensitivity from rubber. Conde-Salazar L, Guimaraens D, Romero LV, Gonzalez MA (1987) Unusual allergic contact dermatitis to aromatic amines. Contact Dermatitis 17 42-44 Conde-Salazar L, Del-Rio E, Guimaraens D, Gonzalez Domingo A (1993) Type IV allergy to rubber additives a 10-year study of 686 cases. J Am Acad Dermatol 29 176-180...

Nonylphenol Ethoxylates PEGn Nonyl Phenyl Ether Polyoxyethylene n Nonyl Phenyl Ether

CAS Registry Number 26027-38-3 and more than 25 other numbers CAS Registry Number 26027-38-3 and more than 25 other numbers Their general formula is C9H19C6H4(OCH2CH2)nOH. Each non-oxynol is characterized by the number (n) of ethylene oxide units repeated in the chain for example, nonoxynol-9, nonoxynol-14. They are present in detergents, liquid soaps, emulsifiers for creams, fabric softeners, photographic paper additives, hair dyes, lubricating oils, spermicides, and anti-infective agents....

Methylmorphine

CAS Registry Number 76-57-3 (CAS Registry Number 52-28-8 , CAS Registry Number 1422-07-7 ) Codeine has been reported as an occupational sensitizer in workers in the production of opium alkaloids. Codeine has been responsible for fixed drug eruptions or generalized dermatitis. Cross-sensitivity is expected to morphine. Conde-Salazar L, Guimaraens D, Gonzalez M, Fuente C (1991) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from opium alkaloids. Contact Dermatitis 25 202-203 Estrada JL, Alvarez Puebla...

MethamNa Carbathion SodiumNMethyldithiocarbamate

Metham-Na is a fungicide nematocide of the dithiocarbamate group. Sensitization occurs among agricultural workers. Koch P (1996) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis and airborne contact dermatitis from 5 fungicides in a vineyard worker. Cross-reactions between fungicides of the dithiocarbamate group Contact Dermatitis Pambor M, Bloch Y (1985) Dimethoat und Dithiocarmabat als berufliche Kontaktallergene bei einer Agrotechnikerin. Dermat Monatsschr 171 401-405 Schubert H (1978) Contact...

Doxepin

This benzoxepin tricylcic drug has antidepressant, anticholin-ergic, anti-itching, and antihistamine properties. After oral use, it has been developed as a topical anti-itching agent. Allergic contact dermatitis is not infrequent. Buckley DA (2000) Contact allergy to doxepin. Contact Dermatitis 43 231-232 Taylor JS, Praditsuwan P, Handel D, Kuffner G (1996) Allergic contact dermatitis from doxepin cream. One-year patch test clinic experience. Arch Dermatol 132 515-518 1-Chloro-2,3-Epoxypropane...

Disperse Blue 106

This clothing dye used in synthetic fibers is one of the most potent sensitizers in clothes. Allergic contact dermatitis is relatively frequent in consumers. Occupational textile dye dermatitis was reported in a ready-to-wear shop. Constant concomitant reactions with Disperse Blue 124 are due to their chemical similarities, as with photograph developers CD1, CD2, CD3, and CD4. Menezes-Brandao F, Altermatt C, Pecegueiro M, Bordalo O, Foussereau J (1985) Contact dermatitis to Disperse Blue 106....

Diphencyprone

2,3-Diphenylcyclopropenone CAS Registry Number 886-38-4 Diphencyprone is a potent contact allergen used in topical immunotherapy, to treat some severe alopecia areata. It is responsible for occupational contact dermatitis in chemists and dermatology department staff. Sansom JE, Molloy KC, Lovell CR (1995) Occupational sensitization to diphencyprone in a chemist. Contact Dermatitis 32 363 Temesv ri E, Gonz lez R, Marschalk M, Horv th A (2004) Age dependence of diphenylcyclopropenone...

DihydroxyN3Hydroxypropyl33Dimethylbutanamide Pantothenylol NPantoyl3Propanolamine Panthenol Pantothenyl Alcohol

Pan(to)thenol is the alcohol corresponding to pantothenic acid, of the vitamin B5 group. It is used as a food additive, and in skin and hair products as a conditioning agent. Contact dermatitis and urticaria have been reported. Schalock PC, Storrs FJ, Morrison L (2000) Contact urticaria from panthe- nol in hair conditioner. Contact Dermatitis 43 223 Stables GI, Wilkinson SM (1998) Allergic contact dermatitis due to panthenol. Contact Dermatitis 38 236-237

Cyclohexen1one

This strong sensitizer has been responsible for chemical burning followed by sensitization in a chemistry student. Goossens A, Deschutter A (2003) Acute irritation followed by primary sensitization to 2-cyclohenen-1-one in a chemistry student. Contact Dermatitis 48 163-164 A rubber accelerator chemical. The most frequent occupational categories are metal industry, homemakers, health services and laboratories, and the building industry. Conde-Salazar L, Del-Rio E, Guimaraens D, Gonzalez Domingo...

Cooh

Ketoprofen is an anti-inflammatory drug, used both topically and systemically. It is above all a photoallergen, responsible for photo- allergic or photo-worsened contact dermatitis, with sun-induced, progressive, severe, and durable reactions. Recurrent photosensitivity is possible for many years. Photosensitivities are expected to thiophene-phenylketone derivatives such as tiaprofenic acid and suprofen, to ketoprofen esters such as piketoprofen, and to benzo-phenone derivatives (see above)...

Cinnamic Aldehyde Cinnamaldehyde 3Phenyl2Propenal CAS Registry Number [104552

This perfumed molecule is used as a fragrance in perfumes, a flavoring agent in soft drinks, ice creams, dentifrices, pastries, chewing-gum, etc. It can induce both contact urticaria and de-layed-type reactions. It can be responsible for dermatitis in the perfume industry or in food handlers. Cinnamic aldehyde is contained in fragrance mix.As a fragrance allergen, it has to be mentioned by name in cosmetics within the EU. Nethercott JR, Holness DL (1989) Occupational dermatitis in food handlers...

Cincaine Cinchocaine Percaine Sovcaine

CAS Registry Number 85-79-0 (CAS Registry Number 61-12-1 ) Dibucaine hydrochloride is an amide group local anesthetic that can induce allergic contact dermatitis. Erdmann SM, Sachs B, Merk HF (2001) Systemic contact dermatitis from cinchocaine. Contact Dermatitis 44 260-261 Nakada T, Iijima M (2000) Allergic contact dermatitis from dibucaine hydrochloride. Contact Dermatitis 42 283

Captane NTrichloromethylmercaptotetrahydrophtalimide

A pesticide, belonging to the thiophthalimide group, mainly affecting agricultural workers. Sensitizer and photosensitizer, it can induce contact urticaria. It is used as a fungicide and a bacteriostatic agent in cosmetics and toiletries, particularly in shampoos. Cases of contact dermatitis were reported in painters, polishers, and varnishers. Aguirre A, Manzano D, Zabala R, Raton JA, Diaz-Perez JL (1994) Contact allergy to captan in a hairdresser. Contact Dermatitis 31 46 Moura C, Dias M,...

Captafol

Captafol is a pesticide, belonging to thiophthalimide group. Occupational contact dermatitis was reported in an agricultural worker who had multiple sensitizations. Peluso AM, Tardio M, Adamo F, Venturo N (1991) Multiple sensitization due to bis-dithiocarbamate and thiophthalimide pesticides. Contact Dermatitis 25 327

BooH

Mezlocillin is an acylaminopenicillin, which caused both immediate and delayed hypersensitivity in a nurse. Keller K, Schwanitz HJ (1992) Combined immediate and delayed hypersensitivity to mezlocillin. Contact Dermatitis 27 348-349 CAS Registry Number 141-43-5 OH Monoethanolamine is contained in many products,such as metal-working fluids. It is mainly an irritant. Traces may exist in other ethanolamine fluids. Bhushan M, Craven NM, Beck MH (1998) Contact allergy to 2-amino-ethanol...

Acrylates And Chalazion

Kanerva L, Lauerma A, Estlander T, Alanko K, Henriks-Eckerman ML, Jolanki R 1996 Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by photobonded sculptured nails and a review of meth acrylates in nail cosmetics. Am J Contact Dermat 7 109-115 Kiec-Swierczynska MK 1996 Occupational allergic contact dermatitis due to acrylates in Lodz. Contact Dermatitis 34 419-422 Rustemeyer T, Frosch PJ 1996 Occupational skin diseases in dental laboratory technicians. I . Clinical picture and causative factors....

Polyvinylpyrrolidone Iodine PVPIodine

Povidone-iodine is iodophor, used as a topical antiseptic. A 10 povidone-iodine solution contains 1 available iodine, but free-iodine is at 0.1 concentration. Skin exposure causes irritant rather than allergic contact dermatitis. In such a situation however, iodine seems to be the true hapten. Lachapelle JM 2005 Allergic contact dermatitis from povidone-iodine a re-evaluation study. Contact Dermatitis 52 9-10 Tosti A, Vincenzi C, Bardazzi F, Mariani R 1990 Allergic contact dermatitis due to...

Cocamide DEA Coconut Oil Fatty Acids Diethanolamide NNbis2Hydroxyethyl Coco Fatty Acid Diethanolamide Cocoyl

Cocamide DEA, manufactured from coconut oil, is widely used in industry and at home as a surface-active agent. It is contained in hand gels, hand washing soaps, shampoos, and dish-washing liquids for its foam-producing and stabilizing properties, and in metalworking fluids and polishing agents as an anticorrosion inhibitor. Fowler JF Jr 1998 Allergy to cocamide DEA.Am J Contact Dermat 9 40-41 Kanerva L, Jolanki R, Estlander T 1993 Dentist's occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by...

Info

CAS Registry Number 97-54-1 c s-isoeugenol Isoeugenol is a mixture of two cis and trans isomers. It occurs in ylang-ylang and other essential oils. It is a common allergen of perfumes and cosmetics such as deodorants, and is contained in fragrance mix. Its presence in cosmetics is indicated in the INGREDIENTS series. Substitution by esters such as isoeugenyl acetate not indicated on the package does not always resolve the allergenic problem, because of the in vivo hydrolysis of the substitute...

Dictionary of Contact Allergens Chemical Structures Sources and References

Bisphenol Epoxy Diacrylate

Le Coz, Jean-Pierre Lepoittevin This chapter has been written in order to familiarize the reader with the chemical structure of chemicals implicated in contact dermatitis, mainly as haptens responsible for allergic contact dermatitis. For each molecule, the principal name is used for classification. We have also listed the most important synonym s , the Chemical Abstract Service CAS Registry Number that characterizes the substance, and its chemical structure. The reader will find...