Nicotine

Nicotine is an alkaloid found in tobacco, and is responsible for its pharmacological effects and addiction. Contact dermatitis from nicotine, considered as rare, has been more frequent since its use in transdermal systems. Irritant dermatitis is mainly encountered, as contact urticaria seems to be rare. Allergic contact dermatitis, sometimes generalized, has been reported, with positive patch testing to nicotine base (10 ethanol or petrolatum). No consequences have been reported in patients who...

Zinc Pyrithione Zinc Omadine

CAS Registry Number 13463-41-7 and more than 20 others The sodium salt of N-hydroxy-2-pyridinethiones has germicidal activity against yeasts and fungi. Sodium omadine is a 40 aqueous solution of sodium pyrithione. It is used in the metallurgical industry as a component of water-based metalworking fluids, of aceto-polyvinyl lattices, water-based printer's ink, a lubricant for synthetic fibers and anti-dandruff shampoos. Zinc pyrithione is widely used in anti-dandruff shampoos and is a classic...

Y

TETD is a rubber accelerator of the thiuram group, contained in thiuram mix. It can cross-react with other thiurams, especially TMTD. TETD is used to aid those trying to break their dependence on alcohol. The disulfiram-alcohol reaction is not allergic but due to the accumulation of toxic levels of acetaldehyde. The implanted drug can, however, lead to local or generalized dermatitis, for example ingested disulfiram, mainly in previously rubber-sensitized patients. As an adjunctive treatment of...

With the Patients Own Products

Frosch, Johannes Geier, Wolfgang Uter, An Goossens Commercially available patch test kits (standard series and various supplementary series) are the basis of a diagnostic work-up if an allergic contact dermatitis is to be confirmed. However, various investigators have shown that this way of testing is not sufficient. Menn et al. 20 found in a multicenter study that the European Standard Series detects only 37-73 of the responsible allergens in patients with contact dermatitis. The...

Vitamin E Acetate dlVitamin E Acetate d

CAS Registry Number 7695-91-2 , CAS Registry Number 58-95-7 Tocopherol and tocopheryl acetate are used mainly as antioxidants. Tocopheryl acetate, an ester of tocopherol (vitamin E), can induce allergic contact dermatitis. De Groot AC, Berretty PJ, van Ginkel CJ, den Hengst CW, van Ulsen J, Weyland JW (1991) Allergic contact dermatitis from tocopheryl acetate in cosmetic creams. Contact Dermatitis 25 302-304 Matsumura T, Nakada T, Iijima M (2004) Widespread contact dermatitis from tocopherol...

Vinylpyridine

4-Vinyl pyridine was used as a monomer in polymer chemistry and induced nonimmunological contact urticaria, and allergic contact dermatitis. No cross-reactivity is observed between pyri-dine derivatives. Bergendorff O, Wallengren J (1999) 4-Vinylpyridine-induced dermatitis in a laboratory worker. Contact Dermatitis 40 280-281 Foussereau J, Lantz JP, Grosshans E (1972) Allergic eczema from vinyl-4- pyridine. Contact Dermatitis Newslett 11 261 Sasseville D, Balbul A, Kwong P,Yu K (1996) Contact...

Usnic Acid dUsnic Acid lUsnic Acid

CAS Registry Number 125-46-2 (CAS Registry Number 7562-61-0 , CAS Registry Number 6159-66-6 ) Usnic acid is a component of lichens, also used as a topical antibiotic. Allergic contact dermatitis from lichens occurs mainly occupa-tionally in forestry and horticultural workers, and in lichen pickers. Aalto-Korte K, Lauerma A, Alanko K (2005) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from lichens in present-day Finland. Contact Dermatitis 52 36-38 Hahn M, Lischka G, Pfeifle J, Wirth V (1995) A case...

Toluene25Diamine

P-Toluylenediamine, p-Toluenediamine Toluene-2,5-diamine is a permanent hair dye involved in contact dermatitis in hairdressers and consumers. It does not cross-react with PPD, but co-sensitization is frequent. Frosch PJ, Burrows D, Camarasa JG, Dooms-Goossens A, Ducombs G, Lahti A, Menne T, Rycroft RJG, Shaw S, White IR, Wilkinson JD (1993) Allergic reactions to a hairdresser's series results from 9 European centres. Contact Dermatitis 28 180-183 Guerra L, Tosti A, Bardazzi F, Pigatto P, Lisi...

Thebaine

The naturally occurring opiate alkaloid thebaine is present in concentrated poppy straw, and in small concentrations in codeine alkaloid. It is used in the manufacture of other opiate pharmaceuticals, such as buprenorphine and morphine, and caused contact dermatitis in a laboratory worker at an opiates manufacturing pharmaceutical company, also sensitive to codeine. Waclawski ER, Aldridge R (1995) Occupational dermatitis from thebaine and codeine. Contact Dermatitis 33 51

Solvent

Sudan III, CI 26100, D and C Red No. 17 CAS Registry Number 85-86-9 Sudan III, CI 26100, D and C Red No. 17 CAS Registry Number 85-86-9 Solvent Red 23 is an oil-soluble red azo-dye used in cosmetic products in Japan. Cases were reported in hairdressers, who also reacted to PPD (the molecule is likely to be hydrolyzed into PPD) and to p-aminoazobenzene. One case of contact dermatitis was reported in the metal industry. Fregert S (1967) Allergic contact dermatitis due to fumes from burning...

Sodium Pyrosulfite Disodium Disulfite E223 CAS Registry Number [7681574O O

This agent is frequently used as a preservative in pharmaceutical products, in the bread-making industry as an antioxidant, and it can induce contact dermatitis. It can be used as a reducing agent in photography and caused dermatitis in a photographic technician, probably acting as an aggravating irritative factor. Sodium metabisulfite contains a certain amount of sodium sulfite and sodium sulfate. Acciai MC, Brusi C, Francalanci Giorgini S, Sertoli A (1993) Allergic contact dermatitis in...

S

Grotan BK is a triazine derivative contained as a biocide in cutting fluids. It is a formaldehyde releaser. Dermatitis, delayed-type allergic conjunctivitis, and asthma were described. Rasschaert V, Goossens A (2002) Conjunctivitis and bronchial asthma symptoms of contact allergy to 1,3,5-tris (2-hydroxyethyl)-hexahydro-triazine (Grotan BK). Contact Dermatitis 47 116 Veronesi S, Guerra L,Valeri F, Toni F (1987) Three cases of contact dermatitis sensitive to Grotan BK. Contact Dermatitis 17 255...

Ranitidine

Ranitidine Hydrochloride CAS Registry Number 66357-59-3 Ranitidine, an H2-receptor antagonist, can cause contact dermatitis within the pharmaceutical industry and in healthcare workers, or may induce systemic drug reactions in patients. Martinez MB, Salvador JF, Aguilera GV, Mas IB, Ramirez JC (2003) Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis induced by ranitidine hydrochloride. Contact Dermatitis 49 47 Romaguerra C, Grimalt F, Vilaplana J (1988) Epidemic of occupational contact dermatitis from...

Qh

This sympathomimetic a-adrenergic agonist is found in plants of the genus Ephedra (Ephedraceae) and is systemically used as a nasal decongestant. It can induce drug skin reactions such as acute generalized exanthematic pustulosis or generalized eczema. Assier-Bonnet H, Viguier M, Dubertret L, Revuz J, Roujeau JC (2002) Severe adverse drug reactions due to pseudoephedrine from over-the-counter medications. Contact Dermatitis 47 165-182 Padial MA, Alvarez-Ferreira J, Tapia B, Blanco R, Manas C,...

PVPHexadecene Copolymer

PVP hexadecene copolymer, another PVP copolymer used for identical applications as PVP eicosene copolymer, has been rarely implicated in contact dermatitis. De Groot AC, Bruynzeel DP, Bos JD, van der Meeren HL, van Joost T, Jagtman BA, Weyland JW (1988) The allergens in cosmetics. Arch Dermatol 124 1525-1529 Scheman A, Cummins R (1998) Contact allergy to PVP hexadecene copolymer. Contact Dermatitis 39 201

Propyl Gallate

This gallate ester (E 311) is an antioxidant frequently used in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries to prevent the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids into rancid-smelling compounds. It causes cosmetic dermatitis mainly from lipsticks and induced contact dermatitis in a baker, and in a female confectioner, primarily sensitized by her night cream, who fried doughnuts -the margarine probably containing gallates. Bojs G, Niklasson B, Svensson A (1987) Allergic contact dermatitis to...

Propranolol

Propranolol is a beta-blocking agent that was responsible for the sensitization of workers in drug synthesis. In one case, epichlor-hydrin was used for the production of drugs propranolol and oxprenolol. Cross-reactivity is expected between beta-blockers. Pereira F, Dias M, Pacheco FA (1996) Occupational contact dermatitis from propranolol, hydralazine and bendroflumethiazide. Contact Dermatitis 35 303-304 Rebandel P, Rudzki E (1990) Dermatitis caused by epichlorhydrin, Oxprenolol hydrochloride...

Primin

Primin is the major allergen of Primula obconica Hance (Primula-ceae family). Allergic contact dermatitis is mainly occupational, occurring in florists and horticulturists. Christensen LP, Larsen E (2000) Direct emission of the allergen primin from intact Primula obconica plants. Contact Dermatitis 42 149-153 Lamminpaa A, Estlander T, Jolanki R, Kanerva L (1996) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by decorative plants. Contact Dermatitis 34 330-335 Pristinamycin IA (Streptogramin B,...

Prilocaine Hydrochloride

CAS Registry Number 25655-41-8 (CAS Registry Number 1786-81-8 ) Prilocaine in a local anesthetic of the amide group. It can induce allergic contact dermatitis, particularly from EMLA cream. Le Coz CJ, Cribier BJ, Heid E (1996) Patch testing in suspected allergic contact dermatitis due to Emla cream in haemodialyzed patients. Contact Dermatitis 35 316-317

Pivampicillin

Pivampicillin Hydrochloride CAS Registry Number 26309-95-5 Pivampicillin is a prodrug of ampicillin. It caused sensitization in 56 workers at a penicillin factory. Pivampicillin and pivmecillinam were responsible for contact dermatitis in pharmaceutical production workers. Ampicillin, mecillinam or amdinocillin, penicillin V and penicillin G were also implicated in cross-reactions. Moller NE, von W rden K (1992) Hypersensitivity to semisynthetic penicillins and cross-reactivity with penicillin....

Piroxicam

CAS Registry Number 36332-90-4 OH O This nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug belongs to the oxicam class. It induces photo-allergic contact dermatitis rather than contact allergy. Systemic photosensitivity is frequent, in patients prev iously sensitized to thiomersal. Thiosalicylic acid, the nonmer-curial moiety of thiomersal, is a marker of photoallergy to piroxi-cam. Reactions are expected with piroxicam p-cyclodextrin but cross-sensitivity is generally not observed to tenoxicam or melox-icam...

Phenylethyl Caffeate

Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester, Capee CAS Registry Number 104594-70-9 OH Capee is one of the allergens of propolis (bee glue). It is also contained in poplar bud secretions. Lamminpaa A, Estlander T, Jolanki R, Kanerva L (1996) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by decorative plants. Contact Dermatitis Oliwiecki S, Beck MH, Hausen BM (1992) Occupational contact dermatitis from caffeates in poplar bud resin in a tree surgeon. Contact Dermatitis 27 127-128 CAS Registry Numbers 85-44-9...

Parthenolide

Parthenolide is a sesquiterpene lactone found Asteraceae-Com-positae such as feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium Schultz-Bip.) or congress grass (Parthenium hysterophorus L.). Hausen BM, Osmundsen PE (1983) Contact allergy to parthenolide in Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz-Bip. (feverfew, Asteraceae) and cross-reactions to related sesquiterpene lactone containing Compositae spe-cies.Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 63 308-314 Lamminpaa A, Estlander T, Jolanki R, Kanerva L (1996) Occupational allergic...

Or

Cyanoacrylates, particularly 2-ethyl cyanoacrylate, are derived from cyanoacrylic acid. They are used as sealants. Fischer AA (1985) Reactions to cyanoacrylate adhesives instant glue. Cutis 35 18,20,22 Tarvainen K (1995) Analysis of patients with allergic patch test reactions to a plastics and glue series. Contact Dermatitis 32 346-351 Diethyleneglycol Diacrylate CAS Registry Number 4074-88-8 Diethyleneglycol diacrylate was positive in a painter sensitized to his own acrylate-based paint....

ONitrop Phenylenediamine Onpd Ci 76070 CAS Registry Number [5307142 NH2

ONPD is a hair dye and a sensitizer in hairdressers and consumers who are generally sensitive to PPD too. Frosch PJ, Burrows D, Camarasa JG, Dooms-Goossens A, Ducombs G, Lahti A, Menne T, Rycroft RJG, Shaw S, White IR, Wilkinson JD (1993) Allergic reactions to a hairdresser's series results from 9 European centres. Contact Dermatitis 28 180-183 Guerra L, Tosti A, Bardazzi F, Pigatto P, Lisi P, Santucci B, Valsecchi R, Schena D,Angelini G, Sertoli A,Ayala F, Kokelj F (1992) Contact dermatitis in...

Omite

The pesticide omite principally acts as an irritant. Contact dermatitis was reported in 40 of 47 agricultural workers using Omite . Nishioka K, Kozuka T, Tashiro M (1970) Agricultural miticide (BPPS) dermatitis. Skin Res 12 15 O'Malley M, Rodriguez P, Maibach HI (1995) Pesticide patch testing California nursery workers and controls. Contact Dermatitis 32 61-62

Oh

Parabens are esters formed by p-hydroxybenzoic acid and an alcohol. They are largely used as biocides in cosmetics and toiletries, medicaments, or food. They have synergistic power with other biocides. Parabens can induce allergic contact dermatitis, mainly in chronic dermatitis and wounded skin. Le Coz CJ (2004) Fiche d' viction en cas d'hypersensibilit aux esters de l'acide para-hydroxybenzo que (parahydroxybenzoates ou parabens). Ann Dermatol Venereol 131 309-310 PPD, p-Phenylenediamine,...

Oh Oh

Chlorhexidine is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent, a synthetic biguanide antiseptic and disinfectant, available under different forms (diacetate, dihydrochloride, and mostly digluconate). It is also used as a biocide in several topicals and cosmetics. It may cause allergic contact dermatitis, photosensitivity or even fixed drug eruption, mainly after prolonged and repeated applications in health workers, leg ulcer, and leg eczema patients. Immediate-type reactions have been reported contact...

O

A reactive diluent used to reduce viscosity of epoxy resins Holness DL, Nethercott JR (1993) The performance of specialized collections of bisphenol A epoxy resin system components in the evaluation ofworkers in an occupational health clinic population. Contact Dermatitis 28 216-219 Jolanki R, Kanerva L, Estlander T, Tarvainen K, Keskinen H, Henriks-Eckerman ML (1990) Occupational dermatoses from epoxy resin compounds. Contact Dermatitis 23 172-183 This antioxidant has seldom been reported as a...

O 1 1 1 T ys df

Imidazolidinyl urea, a formaldehyde releaser related to diazol-idinyl urea (see above), is used as an antimicrobial agent very active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, used as a synergist in combination with parabens. It is used as a preservative in aqueous products, mainly in cosmetics, toiletries, and liquid soaps. Karlberg AT, Skare L, Lindberg I,Nyhammar E (1998) A method for quantification of formaldehyde in the presence of formaldehyde donors in skin-care products. Contact...

NPhenyl2Naphthylamine Neozone

CAS Registry Numbers 135-88-6 , 52907-17-2 , 84420-28-0 Phenyl-beta-naphthylamine is an amine compound. Sensitization was reported in patients with hypersensitivity from rubber. Conde-Salazar L, Guimaraens D, Romero LV, Gonzalez MA (1987) Unusual allergic contact dermatitis to aromatic amines. Contact Dermatitis 17 42-44 Conde-Salazar L, Del-Rio E, Guimaraens D, Gonzalez Domingo A (1993) Type IV allergy to rubber additives a 10-year study of 686 cases. J Am Acad Dermatol 29 176-180...

Nonylphenol Ethoxylates PEGn Nonyl Phenyl Ether Polyoxyethylene n Nonyl Phenyl Ether

CAS Registry Number 26027-38-3 and more than 25 other numbers CAS Registry Number 26027-38-3 and more than 25 other numbers Their general formula is C9H19C6H4(OCH2CH2)nOH. Each non-oxynol is characterized by the number (n) of ethylene oxide units repeated in the chain for example, nonoxynol-9, nonoxynol-14. They are present in detergents, liquid soaps, emulsifiers for creams, fabric softeners, photographic paper additives, hair dyes, lubricating oils, spermicides, and anti-infective agents....

Nh

Hexamidine is an antiseptic active against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi, used as a disinfectant and a preservative in cosmetics. It induces papulo-vesicular and diffuse allergic contact dermatitis. Dooms-Goossens A, Vandaele M, Bedert R, Marien K (1989) Hexamidine isethionate a sensitizer in topical pharmaceutical products and cosmetics. Contact Dermatitis 21 270 Le Coz CJ, Scrivener Y, Santinelli F, Heid E (1998) Sensibilisation de contact au cours des ulc res de jambe. Ann Dermatol...

Nco

MDI is used in the manufacture of various polyurethane products elastic and rigid foams, paints, lacquers, adhesives, binding agents, synthetic rubbers, and elastomeric fibers. Estlander T, Keskinen H, Jolanki R, Kanerva L (1992) Occupational dermatitis from exposure to polyurethane chemicals. Contact Dermatitis 27 161-165 Mancuso G, Reggiani M, Berdondini RM (1996) Occupational dermatitis in shoemakers. Contact Dermatitis 34 17-22 It is a rubber chemical used as an accelerator and stabilizing...

N02

Goon AT, Gilmour NJ, Basketter DA, White IR, Rycroft RJ, McFadden JP (2003) High frequency of simultaneous sensitivity to Disperse Orange 3 in patients with positive patch tests to para-phenylenediamine. Contact Dermatitis 48 248-250 Le Coz CJ, Jelen G, Goossens A,Vigan M, Ducombs G, Bircher A, Giordano-Labadie F, Pons-Guiraud A, Milpied-Homsi B, Castelain M, Tennstedt D, Bourrain JL, Bernard G, GERDA (2004) Disperse (yes), Orange (yes), 3 (no) what do we test in textile dye dermatitis Contact...

N

1-Methylpyrrolidone is an aprotic solvent with a wide range of applications petrochemical processing, surface coating, dyes and pigments, industrial and domestic cleaning compounds, and agricultural and pharmaceutical formulations. It is mainly an irritant, but it can cause severe contact dermatitis due to prolonged contact. Jungbauer FH, Coenraads PJ, Kardaun SH (2001) Toxic hygroscopic contact reaction to N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone. Contact Dermatitis 45 303-304 Leira H,Tiltnes A,Svendsen...

Methylmorphine

CAS Registry Number 76-57-3 (CAS Registry Number 52-28-8 , CAS Registry Number 1422-07-7 ) Codeine has been reported as an occupational sensitizer in workers in the production of opium alkaloids. Codeine has been responsible for fixed drug eruptions or generalized dermatitis. Cross-sensitivity is expected to morphine. Conde-Salazar L, Guimaraens D, Gonzalez M, Fuente C (1991) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from opium alkaloids. Contact Dermatitis 25 202-203 Estrada JL, Alvarez Puebla...

MethamNa Carbathion SodiumNMethyldithiocarbamate

Metham-Na is a fungicide nematocide of the dithiocarbamate group. Sensitization occurs among agricultural workers. Koch P (1996) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis and airborne contact dermatitis from 5 fungicides in a vineyard worker. Cross-reactions between fungicides of the dithiocarbamate group Contact Dermatitis Pambor M, Bloch Y (1985) Dimethoat und Dithiocarmabat als berufliche Kontaktallergene bei einer Agrotechnikerin. Dermat Monatsschr 171 401-405 Schubert H (1978) Contact...

Info

Goh CL, Ng SK (1987) Airborne contact dermatitis to colophony in soldering flux. Contact Dermatitis 17 89-91 2-Aminophenol, CI 76520 CAS Registry Number 95-55-6 It is contained in hair dyes and can cause contact dermatitis in hairdressers and in consumers. Matsunaga K, Hosokawa K, Suzuki M,Arima Y, Hayakawa R (1988) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis in beauticians. Contact Dermatitis 4-Aminophenol, Amino-4 Hydroxybenzene, Hydroxy-4 Aniline, CI 76550 This hair dye is frequently implicated...

Hema

Sensitization to 2-HEMA concerns mainly dental technicians and dentists, but can also occur in other workers such as printers or beauticians or consumers using photopolymerizable sculptured nails. Geukens S, Goossens A (2001) Occupational contact allergy to (meth)- acrylates. Contact Dermatitis 44 153-159 Jolanki R, Kanerva L, Estlander T, Tarvainen K (1994) Concomitant sensi-tization to triglycidyl isocyanurate, diaminodiphenylmethane and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate from silk-screen printing...

H2s04

It caused some allergic reactions in photographers. Cross-reactivity is possible with Disperse Blue 124, Disperse Blue 106, and Disperse Red 17 Aguirre A, Landa N, Gonzalez M, Diaz-Perez JL (1992) Allergic contact dermatitis in a photographer. Contact Dermatitis 27 340-341 Galindo PA, Garcia R, Garrido JA, Feo F, Fernandez F (1994) Allergic contact dermatitis from colour developers absence of cross-sensitivity to para-amino compounds. Contact Dermatitis 30 301 Hansson C,...

Irj

Naphthol AS is a coupling agent in cotton dyeing, inducing occupational dermatitis or contact allergy in consumers in contact with cotton-dyed clothing. It has been indirectly reported as a cause of occupational allergy due to its coupling with Diazo Component 51, or as a cross-sensitizer or sensitizer associated with Pigment Red 23 in red parts of tattoos. Pigmented contact dermatitis is usual in patients with a high phototype. Le Coz CJ, Lepoittevin JP (2001) Clothing dermatitis from Naphthol...

H H

Ethylbutylthiourea is an accelerator used with other thiourea derivatives in the production of neoprene rubber. It is also contained in glues, mainly neoprene type. Bergendorff O, Persson CML, Hansson C (2004) HPLC analysis of alkyl thioureas in an orthopaedic brace and patch testing with pure ethylbu-tylthiourea. Contact Dermatitis 51 273-277 Kanerva L, Estlander T, Jolanki R (1994) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by thiourea compounds. Contact Dermatitis 31 242-248 Roberts JL,...

Eha

2-EHA was contained in a surgical tape and caused allergic contact dermatitis in a patient. Daecke C, Schaller J, Goos M (1994) Acrylates as potent allergens in occupational and domestic exposures. Contact Dermatitis 30 190-191 Ethyl methacrylate is used in dental prostheses or in photobonded sculptured nails. Kanerva L, Estlander T, Jolanki R, Tarvainen K (1993) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by exposure to acrylates during work with dental prostheses. Contact Dermatitis 28...

Doxepin

This benzoxepin tricylcic drug has antidepressant, anticholin-ergic, anti-itching, and antihistamine properties. After oral use, it has been developed as a topical anti-itching agent. Allergic contact dermatitis is not infrequent. Buckley DA (2000) Contact allergy to doxepin. Contact Dermatitis 43 231-232 Taylor JS, Praditsuwan P, Handel D, Kuffner G (1996) Allergic contact dermatitis from doxepin cream. One-year patch test clinic experience. Arch Dermatol 132 515-518 1-Chloro-2,3-Epoxypropane...

Disperse Blue 106

This clothing dye used in synthetic fibers is one of the most potent sensitizers in clothes. Allergic contact dermatitis is relatively frequent in consumers. Occupational textile dye dermatitis was reported in a ready-to-wear shop. Constant concomitant reactions with Disperse Blue 124 are due to their chemical similarities, as with photograph developers CD1, CD2, CD3, and CD4. Menezes-Brandao F, Altermatt C, Pecegueiro M, Bordalo O, Foussereau J (1985) Contact dermatitis to Disperse Blue 106....

Diphencyprone

2,3-Diphenylcyclopropenone CAS Registry Number 886-38-4 Diphencyprone is a potent contact allergen used in topical immunotherapy, to treat some severe alopecia areata. It is responsible for occupational contact dermatitis in chemists and dermatology department staff. Sansom JE, Molloy KC, Lovell CR (1995) Occupational sensitization to diphencyprone in a chemist. Contact Dermatitis 32 363 Temesv ri E, Gonz lez R, Marschalk M, Horv th A (2004) Age dependence of diphenylcyclopropenone...

Dipentene

Dipentene corresponds to a racemic mixture of D-limonene and L-limonene. Dipentene can be prepared from wood turpentine or by synthesis. It is used as a solvent for waxes, rosin and gums, in printing inks, perfumes, rubber compounds, paints, enamels, and lacquers. An irritant and sensitizer, dipentene caused contact dermatitis mainly in painters, polishers, and varnishers. Martins C, Gon alo M, Gon alo S (1995) Allergic contact dermatitis from dipentene in wax polish. Contact Dermatitis 33...

Dipentamethylenethiuram Disulfide

A rubber chemical contained in thiuram mix. The most frequent occupational categories are the metal industry, homemakers, health services and laboratories, and the building industry. Conde-Salazar L, Del-Rio E, Guimaraens D, Gonzalez Domingo A (1993) Type IV allergy to rubber additives a 10-year study of 686 cases. J Am Acad Dermatol 29 176-180 Conde-Salazar L, Guimaraens D, Villegas C, Romero A, Gonzalez MA (1995) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis in construction workers. Contact...

DihydroxyN3Hydroxypropyl33Dimethylbutanamide Pantothenylol NPantoyl3Propanolamine Panthenol Pantothenyl Alcohol

Pan(to)thenol is the alcohol corresponding to pantothenic acid, of the vitamin B5 group. It is used as a food additive, and in skin and hair products as a conditioning agent. Contact dermatitis and urticaria have been reported. Schalock PC, Storrs FJ, Morrison L (2000) Contact urticaria from panthe- nol in hair conditioner. Contact Dermatitis 43 223 Stables GI, Wilkinson SM (1998) Allergic contact dermatitis due to panthenol. Contact Dermatitis 38 236-237

Dibutyl Phthalate

It is mainly used as a nonreactive epoxy diluent. Capon F, Cambie MP, Clinard F, Bernardeau K, Kalis B (1996) Occupational contact dermatitis caused by computer mice. Contact Dermatitis 35 57-58 Chieregato C, Vincenzi C, Guerra L, Farina P (1994) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis due to ethylenediamine dihydrochloride and cresyl glycidyl ether in epoxy resin systems. Contact Dermatitis 30 120

Diallyl Disulfide

Diallyl disulfide is one of the major allergens in garlic (Allium sativum) and onions. Among patients patch-test-positive to garlic, all 13 who were tested had positive reactions to diallyl sulfide 5 pet. Bruynzeel DP (1997) Bulb dermatitis. Dermatological problems in the flower bulb industries. Contact Dermatitis 37 70-77 Lamminpaa A, Estlander T, Jolanki R, Kanerva L (1996) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by decorative plants. Contact Dermatitis 34 330-335 McFadden JP, White...

Cyclohexen1one

This strong sensitizer has been responsible for chemical burning followed by sensitization in a chemistry student. Goossens A, Deschutter A (2003) Acute irritation followed by primary sensitization to 2-cyclohenen-1-one in a chemistry student. Contact Dermatitis 48 163-164 A rubber accelerator chemical. The most frequent occupational categories are metal industry, homemakers, health services and laboratories, and the building industry. Conde-Salazar L, Del-Rio E, Guimaraens D, Gonzalez Domingo...

Cyclohexanone

Used as a polyvinyl chloride solvent, cyclohexanone caused contact dermatitis in a woman manufacturing PVC fluidotherapy bags.Cyclohexanone probably does not cross-react with cyclohexanone resin. A cyclohexanone-derived resin used in paints and varnishes, caused contact dermatitis in painters. Bruze M, Boman A, Bergquist-Karlson A, Bjorkner B, Wahlberg JE, Woog E (1988) Contact allergy to cyclohexanone resin in humans and guinea pigs. Contact Dermatitis 18 46-49 Sanmartin O, de la Cuadra J...

Cooh

Ketoprofen is an anti-inflammatory drug, used both topically and systemically. It is above all a photoallergen, responsible for photo- allergic or photo-worsened contact dermatitis, with sun-induced, progressive, severe, and durable reactions. Recurrent photosensitivity is possible for many years. Photosensitivities are expected to thiophene-phenylketone derivatives such as tiaprofenic acid and suprofen, to ketoprofen esters such as piketoprofen, and to benzo-phenone derivatives (see above)...

Cinnamic Aldehyde Cinnamaldehyde 3Phenyl2Propenal CAS Registry Number [104552

This perfumed molecule is used as a fragrance in perfumes, a flavoring agent in soft drinks, ice creams, dentifrices, pastries, chewing-gum, etc. It can induce both contact urticaria and de-layed-type reactions. It can be responsible for dermatitis in the perfume industry or in food handlers. Cinnamic aldehyde is contained in fragrance mix.As a fragrance allergen, it has to be mentioned by name in cosmetics within the EU. Nethercott JR, Holness DL (1989) Occupational dermatitis in food handlers...

Cincaine Cinchocaine Percaine Sovcaine

CAS Registry Number 85-79-0 (CAS Registry Number 61-12-1 ) Dibucaine hydrochloride is an amide group local anesthetic that can induce allergic contact dermatitis. Erdmann SM, Sachs B, Merk HF (2001) Systemic contact dermatitis from cinchocaine. Contact Dermatitis 44 260-261 Nakada T, Iijima M (2000) Allergic contact dermatitis from dibucaine hydrochloride. Contact Dermatitis 42 283

Ci 11855

This azoic dye is responsible for textile dermatitis from stockings and occupational contact dermatitis in workers in the textile industry. It can be found in some semipermanent hair dyes. Conde-Salazar L, Baz M, Guimaraens D, Cannavo A (1995) Contact dermatitis in hairdressers patch test results in 379 hairdressers (1980-1993). Am J Contact Dermat 6 19-23 Soni BP, Sherertz EF (1996) Contact dermatitis in the textile industry a review of 72 patients. Am J Contact Dermat 7 226-230

Ci

Chlorothalonil is a fungicide widely used in the cultivation of ornamental plants and flowers, rice, and onions. In banana plantations it is used in fumigations by airplanes. It can be used as a preservative of paints and of woods. It can induce contact urticaria, irritant and allergic contact dermatitis, erythema dys-chromicum perstans or folliculitis mainly in agricultural workers, wood-related professions or in horticulturists. Boman A, Montelius J, Rissanen RL, Lid n C (2000) Sensitizing...

Chlorpromazine

This phenothiazine with sedative properties is used in human medicine and induced contact dermatitis in nurses or those working in the pharmaceutical industry. It is also in veterinary medicine, to avoid mortality of pigs during transportation. It is a sensi-tizer and a photosensitizer. Brasch J, Hessler HJ, Christophers E (1991) Occupational (photo)allergic contact dermatitis from azaperone in a piglet dealer. Contact Dermatitis 25 258-259

Ch

It is a reactive diluent added in epoxy resins Bisphenol A type. Chieregato C, Vincenzi C, Guerra L, Farina P (1994) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis due to ethylenediamine dihydrochloride and cresyl glycidyl ether in epoxy resin systems. Contact Dermatitis 30 120 Daecke C, Schaller J, Goos M (1994) Acrylates as potent allergens in occupational and domestic exposures. Contact Dermatitis 30 190-191 Holness DL, Nethercott JR (1993) The performance of specialized collections of bisphenol A...

Captane NTrichloromethylmercaptotetrahydrophtalimide

A pesticide, belonging to the thiophthalimide group, mainly affecting agricultural workers. Sensitizer and photosensitizer, it can induce contact urticaria. It is used as a fungicide and a bacteriostatic agent in cosmetics and toiletries, particularly in shampoos. Cases of contact dermatitis were reported in painters, polishers, and varnishers. Aguirre A, Manzano D, Zabala R, Raton JA, Diaz-Perez JL (1994) Contact allergy to captan in a hairdresser. Contact Dermatitis 31 46 Moura C, Dias M,...

Captafol

Captafol is a pesticide, belonging to thiophthalimide group. Occupational contact dermatitis was reported in an agricultural worker who had multiple sensitizations. Peluso AM, Tardio M, Adamo F, Venturo N (1991) Multiple sensitization due to bis-dithiocarbamate and thiophthalimide pesticides. Contact Dermatitis 25 327

Caffeic Acid Dimethyl Allylic Ester

3-Methyl-2-Butenyl-Caffeate CAS Registry Number 108084-13-7 This is the major allergen of poplar bud resins and of propolis, the bee glue derived almost exclusively from poplar buds. Lamminpaa A, Estlander T, Jolanki R, Kanerva L (1996) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by decorative plants. Contact Dermatitis 34 330-335 Oliwiecki S, Beck MH, Hausen BM (1992) Occupational contact dermatitis from caffeates in poplar bud resin in a tree surgeon. Contact Dermatitis 27 127-128

BooH

Mezlocillin is an acylaminopenicillin, which caused both immediate and delayed hypersensitivity in a nurse. Keller K, Schwanitz HJ (1992) Combined immediate and delayed hypersensitivity to mezlocillin. Contact Dermatitis 27 348-349 CAS Registry Number 141-43-5 OH Monoethanolamine is contained in many products,such as metal-working fluids. It is mainly an irritant. Traces may exist in other ethanolamine fluids. Bhushan M, Craven NM, Beck MH (1998) Contact allergy to 2-amino-ethanol...

Bardac22

This quaternary ammonium compound is used as a detergent-disinfectant in hospitals, as an algaecide in swimming pools, as a fungicide, and against termites in wood. We recently observed severe contact dermatitis in a slaughterhouse worker using a liquid soap containing this product (personal observation). Dejobert Y, Martin P, Piette F, Thomas P, Bergoend H (1997) Contact dermatitis from didecyldimethylammonium chloride and bis-(amino-propyl)-laurylamine in a detergent-disinfectant used in...

Badge

Most epoxy resins result from polymerization of bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE). Delayed hypersensitivity is caused by the low-molecular-weight monomer BADGE (Mol. Wt. 340 g mol), the dimer having much a lower sensitization power. This allergen caused contact dermatitis in six workers in a plant producing printed circuits boards made of copper sheets and fiber glass fabric impregnated with a brominated epoxy resin. It can be contained in adhesives. Bruze M, Almgren G (1989) Occupational...

A

This chlorinated and brominated product is employed in agriculture as a fungicide, for wood preservation. When used to sanitize pools and spas, releasing both chlorine and bromine derivatives, it can induce irritant or allergic contact dermatitis. Rycroft RJG, Penny PT (1983) Dermatoses associated with brominated swimming pools. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 287 462 Sasseville D, Moreau L (2004) Contact allergy to i-bromo-3chloro-5, 5-dimethylhydantoin in spa water. Contact Dermatitis 50 323-324 (6CI,...

Acrylates And Chalazion

Kanerva L, Lauerma A, Estlander T, Alanko K, Henriks-Eckerman ML, Jolanki R 1996 Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by photobonded sculptured nails and a review of meth acrylates in nail cosmetics. Am J Contact Dermat 7 109-115 Kiec-Swierczynska MK 1996 Occupational allergic contact dermatitis due to acrylates in Lodz. Contact Dermatitis 34 419-422 Rustemeyer T, Frosch PJ 1996 Occupational skin diseases in dental laboratory technicians. I . Clinical picture and causative factors....

Polyvinylpyrrolidone Iodine PVPIodine

Povidone-iodine is iodophor, used as a topical antiseptic. A 10 povidone-iodine solution contains 1 available iodine, but free-iodine is at 0.1 concentration. Skin exposure causes irritant rather than allergic contact dermatitis. In such a situation however, iodine seems to be the true hapten. Lachapelle JM 2005 Allergic contact dermatitis from povidone-iodine a re-evaluation study. Contact Dermatitis 52 9-10 Tosti A, Vincenzi C, Bardazzi F, Mariani R 1990 Allergic contact dermatitis due to...

Octocrilene

Octocrylene is an anti-UVB filter used in cosmetics that may induce photoallergic contact dermatitis. Carrotte-Lefebvre I, Bonnevalle A, Segard M, Delaporte E, Thomas P 2003 Contact allergy to octocrylene. Contact Dermatitis 48 46-47 Octyl gallate, a gallate ester E 311 , is an antioxidant added to foods and cosmetics to prevent oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. Cases were sparsely reported in food industry or from lipsticks. Patch tests are frequently irritant. De Groot AC, Gerkens F 1990...

Cocamide DEA Coconut Oil Fatty Acids Diethanolamide NNbis2Hydroxyethyl Coco Fatty Acid Diethanolamide Cocoyl

Cocamide DEA, manufactured from coconut oil, is widely used in industry and at home as a surface-active agent. It is contained in hand gels, hand washing soaps, shampoos, and dish-washing liquids for its foam-producing and stabilizing properties, and in metalworking fluids and polishing agents as an anticorrosion inhibitor. Fowler JF Jr 1998 Allergy to cocamide DEA.Am J Contact Dermat 9 40-41 Kanerva L, Jolanki R, Estlander T 1993 Dentist's occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by...

Ci 11005

Disperse Orange 3 is an azo dye that can induce contact dermatitis in workers in the textile industry. It is positive in a great majority of PPD-positive people, because of hydrolysis in the skin into PPD. Disperse Orange 3 can also be found in some semipermanent hair dyes. Balato N, Lembo G, Patruno C, Ayala F 1990 Prevalence of textile dye contact sensitization. Contact Dermatitis 23 126-127 Conde-Salazar L, Baz M, Guimaraens D, Cannavo A 1995 Contact dermatitis in hairdressers patch test...

Cinnamic Alcohol 3Phenyl2Propenol CAS Registry Number [104541

Cinnamyl alcohol occurs in esterified form in storax, Myroxylon pereirae, cinnamon leaves, and hyacinth oil. It is obtained by the alkaline hydrolysis of storax, and prepared synthetically by reducing cinnamal diacetate with iron filings and acetic acid, and from cinnamaldehyde by Meerwein-Ponndorf reduction with aluminum isopropoxide. Cinnamic alcohol is contained in the fragrance mix.As a fragrance allergen, it has to be mentioned by name in cosmetics within the EU. Occupational cases of...

Diethylenetriamine

CAS Registry Number 111-40-0 H Diethylenetriamine is a hardener in epoxy resins of the Bisphenol A type. It has been reported to be a sensitizer when used in an ultrasonic bath for cleaning jewels, in synthetic lubricants or in carbonless copy paper. Holness DL, Nethercott JR 1993 The performance of specialized collections of bisphenol A epoxy resin system components in the evaluation of workers in an occupational health clinic population. Contact Dermatitis 28 216-219 Jolanki R, Kanerva L,...

Dictionary of Contact Allergens Chemical Structures Sources and References

Bisphenol Epoxy Diacrylate

Le Coz, Jean-Pierre Lepoittevin This chapter has been written in order to familiarize the reader with the chemical structure of chemicals implicated in contact dermatitis, mainly as haptens responsible for allergic contact dermatitis. For each molecule, the principal name is used for classification. We have also listed the most important synonym s , the Chemical Abstract Service CAS Registry Number that characterizes the substance, and its chemical structure. The reader will find...