Professional Makeup For Beginners

Professional Makeup For Beginners

Make-Up for Beginners: Learn Doing Make-Up like a Pro is an online course created by Lana Vallo. It helps individuals do their makeups in a professional way such that they are durable, last for long and enhance beauty. It transforms you into an expert that other people will turn to for help over and over. Subscribing to this program guarantees you more beautiful than ever before. The course was designed following an increasing demand for brand-neutral, timely, and professional advice on the skill of makeup. Enrolling to the course does not require any special tool or requirements. Nonetheless, once you are done with the sessions you will require professional makeup brushes and other necessary tools including a complete makeup kit. It will also be necessary that you find a model for putting into practice all the strategies covered by the video tutorials, especially if you aspire to do makeups for other individuals. This is a fantastic program with thousands of positive reviews. It will significantly improve your skills and make you an expert in the makeup industry. Payment is processed via ClickBank and the product has a 60-day warranty. Continue reading...

Makeup For Beginners Summary


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Decorative Cosmetics Sunscreens Toiletries Tables 4 and

Table 4 .Testing of decorative cosmetics and sunscreens. Abbreviations for vehicles in the following tables ac acetone, MEK methyl ethyl ketone, oo olive oil,pet petrolatum, w water Table 4 .Testing of decorative cosmetics and sunscreens. Abbreviations for vehicles in the following tables ac acetone, MEK methyl ethyl ketone, oo olive oil,pet petrolatum, w water

Makeup Technology

Types of color cosmetics foundation blushers mascara eyeliner eye The term powdered cosmetics are generally used to describe face powders, eyeshadows, and blushers. When the product is applied to the skin, the shade must not significantly change when worn, must feel smooth in use, making it easy to apply, and adhere well for a reasonable time, without reapplication. Some of the attributes of a satisfactory face powder are the following (1) gives smoothness to overall texture (2) gives added skin translucency when excess is buffed (3) makes the skin appear more refined and finer textured (4) helps set the makeup base and adds longevity to the make-up overall (5) suppresses surface oil and shine. Generally there is a wide range of raw materials used in powdered cosmetics and many of these carry over into the formulation of other decorative cosmetics.

Printed In The United States Of America

There is little commonality in the scientific methods, processes, and formulations required for the wide variety of cosmetics and toiletries in the market. Products range from preparations for hair, oral, and skin care to lipsticks, nail polishes and extenders, deodorants, body powders and aerosols, to quasi-pharmaceutical over-the-counter products such as antiperspirants, dandruff shampoos, antimicrobial soaps, and acne and sun screen products. Cosmetics and toiletries represent a highly diversified field involving many subsections of

The International Scene

The situation is more complex and far more demanding in Europe. This is made obvious in the European Economic Cosmetic (EEC) Directive of 1993. The requirements for labeling cosmetics are formidable and daunting (4). The product information that must be made available to officials encompasses the following qualitative and quantitative composition of the product specifications of raw materials methods of manufacture safety assessments and proof of effectiveness. In the United States, manufacturers are not required to demonstrate either safety or efficacy prior to marketing, as is the case for drugs. On top of all this, the EEC has prohibited testing on animals after January 1998 (which I judge to be completely unrealistic). Japanese authorities have created their own laws in response to the problem that many skin care products are neither pure drugs nor pure cosmetics in the traditional sense, but mixtures of the two. The category we call cosmeceuticals they call quasidrugs (5). They...

The Cosmeceutical Perspective

Cosmetic or therapeutic effects produced by the product are important to the consumer, but so are physical aspects of the product itself. A product that is not cosmetically elegant or that is drying or irritating to the skin will be less acceptable to the consumer in spite of alleged pharmaceutical properties. These aspects and physical attributes of cosmetics can be well quantitated by both consumer panel testing of the product as well as by specific instrumentation.

History Of Clinical Trials

In 1906, the United States Congress passed the Pure Food and Drug Act. The purpose of this act is to prevent misbranding and adulteration of food and drugs. However, the scope of this act is rather limited. No preclearance of drugs is required. Moreover the act does not give the government any authority to inspect food and drugs. Since the act does not regulate the claims made for a product, the Sherley Amendment to the act was passed in 1912 to prohibit labeling medicines with false and fraudulent claims. In 1931, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was formed. The provisions of the FDA are intended to ensure that (1) food is safe and wholesome, (2) drugs, biological products, and medical devices are safe and effective, (3) cosmetics are unadulterated, (4) the use of radiological products does not result in unnecessary exposure to radiation, and (5) all of these products are honestly and informatively labeled (Fairweather, 1994). The concept of testing marketed drugs in human...

Biological Activities Of Hydroxyacids

Many aspects concerning the mechanisms of action of hydroxyacids still remain unknown. During the past few years numerous cosmetics containing hydroxyacids have appeared on the market with unfounded claims of performance. Hasty conclusions have been drawn from uncontrolled studies. Erroneous information and incorrect statements flourished behind promotional objectives obscuring the facts.

Transient Global Amnesia

Decline in Personal Hygiene and Grooming. The caregivers' accounts of failure to wash, bathe, groom, apply makeup, and dress appropriately as before are reinforced by clinical observations of unkemptness, body odor, clothing stains, garish makeup, and inappropriate clothing combinations.

Pharmacokinetics and Uses

Pharmacokinetics An antibacterial-antifungal halogenated hydrocarbon similar chemically to trichloroethanol, the active metabolite of chloral hydrate ( Mickey Finn ). Uses Antimicrobial preservative in cosmetics and drugs, especially injectables, otic and ophthalmic topicals (contact lens cleansers).

What Do Kidneys Do and What Happens When They Fail

Forces Gyroscope

By these multiple mechanisms the kidneys achieve their remarkable regulatory capacity. It is very important to recognize that the kidneys' main function is not to excrete wastes instead, they play a very important role in keeping what is called extracellular fluid constant in its makeup. Extracellular fluid is the medium in which the millions of cells that make up our bodies are bathed. Blood plasma is part of the extracellular fluid, and it circulates throughout the body by the pumping of the heart. The kidneys keep constant the composition of the extracellular fluid, namely its content of salts, acid, nutrients, and many other constituents. The

Losing Weight Sensibly

How much you weigh is determined by a number of factors, including the amount and type of food you eat, whether you exercise, whether you eat in response to stress, your genetic makeup, your age, and your health. If you want to lose pounds and maintain a reasonable weight, you need to deal with all of these issues. Eating less and exercising are both critical to any weight-loss program, but if you eat out of boredom or fatigue, you will have a lot of difficulty keeping those pounds off permanently. Losing weight requires permanent changes in your lifestyle changes that might be tough to make.

Regulatory Process And Requirements

Drug Regulatory Process

The FDA is a subcabinet organization within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) which is one of the major cabinets in the United States government. The FDA is headed by a commissioner with several deputy or associate commissioners to assist him or her in various issues such as regulatory affairs, management and operations, health affairs, science, legislative affairs, public affairs, planning and evaluation, and consumer affairs. Under the office of commissioner, there are currently six different centers of various functions for evaluation of food, drugs, and cosmetics. They are Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER), Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH), National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR), Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM), and Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN).

Peeling Preparation

Hydration throughout the procedure (Fig. 8.5). Intravenous sedation or regional blocks make the procedure pain-free. One day prior to the procedure a patient is required to avoid using any cosmetics or creams. Before the peeling, meticulous degreasing of the skin is performed using oil free acetone-soaked gauze sponges. This step is imperative to obtain even penetration of the solution into the skin.

The Case Of Kojic Acid

In 1977, a project was started to find out the cause of melasma and its reliable treatment. From 1970 to 1974, most of the causative contact cosmetic allergens that produce pigmented cosmetic dermatitis had been discovered by 1977, the disease, which had been incurable prior to 1971, was cured, not by medication but by the exclusive use of allergen-free cosmetics and soaps. This usage of allergen-free cosmetics and soaps was designated as the allergen control system (ACS) (15). The effect of ACS had been so dramatic that a number of melasma patients whose outlook was somewhat similar to pigmented cosmetic dermatitis visited Saiseikai Central Hospital in Tokyo everyday, where ACS was invented and reported on by the mass media.

The Use of dfflog PN I and diffpKa to Calculate the Lipophilicity of Ion Pairs in nOctanol Water

Generally speaking, the change in lipophilicity of a molecule when it ionizes is determined by its structure in the near vicinity of the charge center. This simplifies the prediction process since, whatever the size or makeup of the remainder of the molecule, if important features around the charge center do not change, the difference between log PN and log P1 will be about the same. Titrations in -octanol have proven to be an ideal method for identifying these important features and quantifying their influence. Four primary factors affecting log P1 25 are illustrated in Sections using data from Table 3. The titration method is based on eqns 9 and 14 . A particular advantage for current purposes is that, when looking at differences between diff(pK' ' ) values, the electrode correction factors cancel out, giving values sensitive to a few hundredths of a pKa or log P unit. A distinctive feature of this method is that it is insensitive to the magnitude of log P, so...

Patients Informed Consent

I acknowledge that no guarantee has been given me as to the painlessness of the procedure. Some individuals, because of emotional makeup or low pain threshold, may experience severe pain. Heavy premedication is given to make the procedure as comfortable for the patient as possible.

Cinnamic Alcohol 3Phenyl2Propenol CAS Registry Number [104541

Cinnamyl alcohol occurs (in esterified form) in storax, Myroxylon pereirae, cinnamon leaves, and hyacinth oil. It is obtained by the alkaline hydrolysis of storax, and prepared synthetically by reducing cinnamal diacetate with iron filings and acetic acid, and from cinnamaldehyde by Meerwein-Ponndorf reduction with aluminum isopropoxide. Cinnamic alcohol is contained in the fragrance mix. As a fragrance allergen, it has to be mentioned by name in cosmetics within the EU. Occupational cases of contact Citral is an aldehyde fragrance and flavoring ingredient, a blend of isomers cis (Neral) and trans (geranial). As a fragrance allergen, citral has to be mentioned by name in cosmetics within the EU.

Subjective Evaluation

Many factors may influence the perception of color. A suntan will seem to make the teeth whiter, as will makeup (especially dark lipstick). Darker clothing or hair will have the same effect. The ambient lighting and the overall color impact of a room may also cloud our evaluative processes. Most important, over a treatment period of several weeks, we will forget what the originally noted coloration was.

Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species

Singlet oxygen is a particularly damaging molecule with a short half life of i seconds in water. It can react with a variety of biological molecules such as DNA, proteins, and lipids.23,24 UVA-irradiation generates singlet oxygen by energy transfer from a photosensitizer molecule to ground-state oxygen. In addition to endogenous photosensitizers, the skin has access to an increasing number of exogenous photosensitizers in cosmetics, medications, drugs, plants, and industrial emissions. Singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen species have been implicated in the pathogenesis of photodermatologic disorders which include drug-induced phototoxicity, porphyrias, photoaging, and photocarcinogenesis.25-28 ROS, which have increased upon UV-irradiation, cause extensive damage to DNA, as demonstrated by tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes, in addition to proteins and lipids with genotoxic and mutagenic effects. These ROS induced alterations are variations of a common theme involved in aging,...

Australian tea tree Melaleuca alternifolia Myrtaceae

In Australia, Europe, and North America, tea tree oil (Melaleuca aetheroleum) from a tree native to subtropical coastal regions of New South Wales has become very popular in the last decades. Today it is obtained almost exclusively from cultivated material. The use of this species in biomedicine is based on the medical traditions of the Australian Aborigines and includes the treatment of infectious skin conditions (acne). It is also used in cosmetics.

Microdistribution None

Light applications of liquid nitrogen sufficient to produce a 0.5- to 1-mm rim of freeze at the perimeter of the base of the SK is usually sufficient for total removal. The advantage of this technique is the absence of scarring. Heavily pigmented persons must be warned about the possibility of posttreatment hyper- or hypopigmentation. This is especially important when working on the facial area. When patients express concern in this regard, we encourage treatment of one or two test lesions in an inconspicuous location before proceeding. During the sunny season, we strongly urge sun avoidance and the use of a sunscreen with makeup to prevent posttreatment darkening. Cryosurgery is the appropriate way to treat these lesions.

Cedarwood oil Cedar of Lebanon Cedrus libani C atlantica Pinaceae

The Cedar of Lebanon is the national tree of Lebanon, where it is highly endangered, but is also native to northwest Syria and south central Turkey. Its wood was probably burned as incense in ancient Egypt and oil distilled from the wood was used in cosmetics. The tree became a symbol of country estates in Britain following its introduction there in the 1640s.

Lavender Lavandula spp Lamiaceae

True lavender oil is obtained from L. angustifolia, and ranks alongside citrus, rose, and mint oils as one of the most important essential oils in trade, with an annual production worldwide of 250 tons, mostly from France and Bulgaria. It is used in luxury perfumery, whereas the somewhat harsher lavandin oil, from L. x intermedia, is used in cheaper cosmetics and soaps and as a food additive. These and other species such as L. stoechas are also grown as a source of dried leaves and flowers, for use in potpourri and aromatic sachets.

Lemongrass and Citronella Cymbopogon spp Poaceae

Citronella oil is obtained from C. nardus and C. winterianus. Both species are thought to have originated in south Asia. C. nardus is grown in Sri Lanka, while C. winterianus is cultivated in Indonesia, China, India, and Central America. Citronella oil is distilled from the leaves, and has a wide range of uses in perfumery and cosmetics. The oil is increasingly popular as an insecticide and insect repellant.

Initial Considerations for Subset Composition and

Would there be a need for some form of quality assessment of the chemical matter going into the collection This quality assessment might impact the makeup of the set of initial compounds for the subset, particularly in the area of sufficient sample for the tests deemed necessary. Is there enough material to test in the quality control (QC) studies and still have sufficient sample to use for the subset Extensive QC studies can be resource, and time-intensive, consuming a lot of material and consequently impacting on the size of the subset and on the completion date.

Discharge And Home Healthcare Guidelines

Protection factor of greater than 15 before going outdoors. Apply sunscreen on cloudy days because roughly 70 to 80 of ultraviolet rays can penetrate the clouds. Reapply sunscreen every 2 to 3 hours during long sun exposure. Be aware that the sun's rays are reflected by such surfaces as concrete, snow, sand, and water, thereby increasing exposure to ultraviolet rays. Wear protective clothing when outdoors, particularly a wide-brimmed hat to protect the face, scalp, and neck area. Wear wrap-around sunglasses with 99 to 100 ultraviolet absorption to protect the eyes and the skin area around the eyes. Be aware of medications and cosmetics that increase the sensitivity to ultraviolet rays. Minimize ultraviolet exposure as much as possible and use sunscreen that contains benzophenones. Avoid tanning booths or sunlamps.

Legislative History Of The Cosmetic And Drug Provisions Of The 1938

From the time that the legislation that ultimately became the FD&C Act was initially introduced until it was finally enacted, substantial attention was focused on the specific definitions of food, drug, and cosmetics, and the interaction among these three definitions. Out of these deliberations, the following important principles and policies emerged. Third, Congress determined that the definitions of food, drugs, and cosmetics should not be mutually exclusive. Because the representations made for the product would determine the proper classification of the product, and thus classification was within the sole control of the seller, Congress concluded that the product should be subject to whatever statutory requirements are established for whatever product classifications applied, based upon those representations In the Senate debate on the legislation in April 1935, the exclusion of food from the structure function prong of the drug definition was expanded, without discussion, to...

Design Considerations for Libraries of all Sizes and Types

When designing a combinatorial or parallel library, it is essential to consider the intended use of the library. The library size and makeup of a general screening library are different from that of a target family library, which is, in turn, different from a library intended for a single target or for optimization of a lead. Clearly, the largest library type is the general screening or corporate deck enhancement library. These are most likely to be based on some definition of molecular diversity, but the nature of that diversity will be dependent on whether the library centers on a single scaffold or around a diverse set of scaffolds. The former is mostly likely to be a medium-sized library on the order of 1000-2000 compounds, whereas the latter may range in the low tens of thousands. Similarly, a target family library is likely to be diverse but focused around a set of so-called privileged substructures or around a set of pharmacophores. Typically, these libraries are designed to be...

In Vivo Skin Permeation Methods

This section discusses the methods used for the investigation of skin penetration and percutaneous absorption in vivo. Many of the methods are based on animal models that are often used in the early stages in product development (i.e., before the availability of extensive toxicological data). Although the relevance of animal models to the human situation has not been fully evaluated and is often questioned (2730,222,223), there is little doubt that well-planned investigations using laboratory animals can provide useful information for future developmental work. However, the use of animals in testing is becoming less acceptable in certain sectors, and this is reflected in the 6th Amendment to the Cosmetics Directive (93 95 EEC), which includes a future ban on the use of animals in testing cosmetic products and their ingredients. In the development of topical or transdermal pharmaceutical products containing new chemical entities, full-scale clinical studies must be performed. The...

Risk Infection Care Plan

Were upheld, however, it would still exclude all cosmetics with structure function effects that are remote or insignificnat. The ability of the FDA to monitor and bring regulatory action with respect to claims for cosmetic products must take into account the resources available to the agency for this purpose. During the past several years, the FDA has experienced a flat budget. Because of the inexorable impact of inflation, this has been tantamount to a substantial reduction in available resources. At the same time, the FDA has been pursuing its tobacco initiative and a presidential initiative on food safety. As a result of all of these budgetary factors, the FDA announced in 1998 that it was reducing the staff of the Office of Cosmetics and Colors by 50 and cutting back or eliminating many cosmetic regulatory programs (67). This reduction is so substantial that it propelled the cosmetic industry to request and obtain restoration by Congress of adequate funds to assure that the FDA...

The Explanatory Incompleteness Objection

The Gory Details Argument Antireductionists have argued that knowledge of the molecular makeup of genes does not enhance our understanding of their classical Mende-lian behavior. For example, Philip Kitcher (1984), in his brilliant essay which marks the culmination of the antireductionist literature, argues that the assortment of genes is best understood at the cytological level ''The distribution of genes to gametes is to be explained, not by rehearsing the gory details of the reshuffling of the molecules, but through the observation that chromosomes are aligned in pairs just prior to the mei-otic division, and that one chromosome from each matched pair is transmitted to each gamete'' (Kitcher 1984, p. 370). He goes on to argue that the cytological pattern of explanation is objectively preferable because it can uniformly account for a wide range of cases that would look heterogeneous from a molecular perspective. The prospects for developing the splintering objection appear dim. The...

Makrut lime Kaffir lime Citrus hystrix Rutaceae

This species of Citrus is native to tropical Southeast Asia, but is now grown throughout Southeast Asia, Central America, and the Mascarene and Hawaiian Islands for its leaves and fruit juice, which are used as a flavoring. The leaves are a more common ingredient in Southeast Asian dishes and are particularly ubiquitous in Thai cuisine. It is usual to tear the lime leaves before adding them to the cooking pot and to remove them once the dish is cooked. The leaves are used both fresh and dried in soups, curries, sauces, and gravies. Usually sold fresh in the native countries, dried whole and powdered leaves of makrut lime can also be found in Asian and western supermarkets. The dried or candied peels and the juice of the fruits also serve as a flavoring, and essential oils obtained from the leaves and fruit peel are utilized in the cosmetics industry.

Angioedema and Urticaria

Angioedema Pictures Eyelids

INTRODUCTION Angioedema and urticaria are common transient phenomena that result from mast cell degranulation with the release of mediators that promote vascular permeability, causing proteins and fluids to extravasate into the extracellular space. In urticaria fluid collects within the dermal tissue, whereas in angioedema fluid collects in the deeper subcutaneous space. The causes of mast cell degranulation are varied and include both immunologic and nonimmunologic mechanisms. Systemic involvement may include rhinitis, bronchospasm, or anaphylaxis. Severe reactions may lead to syncope, bronchial asthma, and hypotension. In rare cases both urticaria and angioedema may be triggered by exercise. Acute cases reach a peak in one to three days and usually fade in 7-21 days. In chronic cases the condition waxes and wanes for months or may even persist for years. There may be recurrent attacks separated by months to years. Inciting allergens are numerous and include foods, cosmetics,...

Cluster bean Guar Cyamopsis tetragonolobus

The cluster bean is probably native to India where it has been cultivated for at least 1000 years. It was traditionally grown for its edible young pods and seeds and, as cultivation spread to Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands, and East Africa, also for fodder and green manure. Nowadays the use of guar gum, obtained from the seed flower, has much greater economic importance. The gum has been increasingly used in the food, paper, textile, and cosmetics industries. Large-scale production occurs in India and the southwest United States, where it has been used for industrial purposes since the 1940s.

Acrylates And Chalazion

Kanerva L, Lauerma A, Estlander T, Alanko K, Henriks-Eckerman ML, Jolanki R (1996) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by photobonded sculptured nails and a review of (meth) acrylates in nail cosmetics. Am J Contact Dermat 7 109-115 Kiec-Swierczynska MK (1996) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis As a cause of occupational contact dermatitis, tripropylene glycol diacrylate was contained in dental resins, in UV-cured inks and in nail cosmetics. Kanerva L, Estlander T, Jolanki R, Tarvainen K (1993) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by exposure to acrylates during work with dental prostheses. Contact Dermatitis 28 268-275 Kanerva L, Lauerma A, Estlander T, Alanko K, Henriks-Eckerman ML, Jolanki R (1996) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by photobonded sculptured nails and a review of (meth) acrylates in nail cosmetics. Am J Contact Dermat 7 109-115

History of cosmetic microbiology

The first Humans have a basic need to change their appearance. The vastness of today's cosmetics and toiletries industry clearly indicates this widespread and basic need for cosmetics. Perhaps this need arises because cosmetics allow us to make ourselves unique for rituals or societal reasons. We apparently have a primal need for cosmetics to provide for our well-being. Perhaps cosmetics serve as cures for the disease of being someone we prefer not to be. This chapter covers the history of cosmetics and of microbiology The first cosmetics Even after H. erectus disappeared from the record, the red ocher sticks remained popular throughout succeeding Stone Ages. The Neanderthals, a variety of Homo sapiens, lived from 30,000 to 125,000 years ago. They painted their dead with red ocher before burial. This practice may have been done to bring the blush of life back to the body. Homo sapiens sapiens (e.g., Cro-Magnon) appeared around 40,000 years ago and had a skull shape more conducive to...

Concluding Remarks

There is no doubt that measurement of skin permeation both in vitro and in vivo can play a major role in the optimization of formulations for dermal and transdermal drug delivery. The good correlation between in vitro and in vivo measurements adds support to the usefulness of the former, more cost-effective, option. In addition to the pharmaceutical considerations, regulatory concern about potential dermal absorption leading to possible local or systemic effects, is now a major concern for the cosmetic and chemical industries. For products in these sectors to meet increasingly stringent requirements, conclusive evidence for their efficacy and safety is required. With the recent loss of the option to conduct in vivo animal testing on cosmetics and their ingredients, and the ethical and cost constraints of human in vivo studies, one of the most viable remaining approaches for assessing dermal absorption is that of in vitro human skin permeation evaluation. Although in many respects...

In Silico Prediction of Skin Sensitization

Despite the fact that none of these assays is considered high throughput, regulatory requirements for occupational health and safety, as well as the need to demonstrate consumer safety for personal products and cosmetics, has meant that many chemicals have been tested in one or more of these experimental assays. In addition, strong public and political opinion on the use of laboratory animals for testing of personal products and cosmetics has put immense pressure on these industries to develop and adopt alternative methods for identifying skin sensitizers. This pressure has resulted in the release into the public domain of large quantities of data that were traditionally held in the internal archives of private corporations. This release of data along with public pressure was the primary driving force for the development of in silico models for the prediction of ACD.

Food and Drug Administration FDA

FDA is a regulatory agency within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services whose mission is the responsibility of protecting the health of the public by ensuring the safety, efficacy, and security of human and veterinary drugs, biological products, medical devices, the nation's food supply, cosmetics, and products that emit radiation. FDA is also responsible for advancing the public's health by advancing innovations that make medicines and foods more effective, safer, and more affordable and by helping the public get accurate, science-based information needed to use medicines and foods to improve their health.

Commentary Background Information

The diversity and complexity of the normal cellular makeup of tissues or organs, which reflects their varying biological functions, can be altered not only during pathological states but also as a result of normal physiological changes. For example, profound cellular changes can be seen in the ovary and endometrium during the menstrual cycle. In disease, there may not only be alterations in the cells that are normally present e.g., the development of malignant clones but other cell types may also be present and environmental

Jojoba Simmondsia chinensis Simmondsiaceae

Industry remained largely uninterested in jojoba until the 1930s, when it was discovered that the oil from the seeds is in fact a liquid wax. Similar in properties to sperm whale oil, jojoba was explored for industrial needs after the United States banned the use of sperm whale oil in 1970. Requiring less processing than whale oil, jojoba is used as a machine lubricant, and has even been marketed as an automotive oil. Its primary use is as an ingredient in cosmetics, as jojoba yields are not yet capable of supplying the industrial demand for machine lubricant.

Age of Industrialization and Agroindustry

However, the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have also seen an increase in the genetic modification of crop plants. In an effort to increase crop yields and crop strength (resistance to diseases, pests, and weeds), agricultural scientists have been directly manipulating the genetic makeup of corn and soybean plants in particular for example, to develop maize that is herbicide-resistant or resistant to pests. Bt corn is corn modified by the addition of a gene from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis to produce a toxin in the pollen and corn tissues that makes the hybrid resistant to the European corn borer and other pests. The resulting products, collectively known as transgenic plants or GMOs, Genetically Modified Organisms, have led to controversy (see the section on soybeans below).

General Comments From The Dermatology And Cosmetic Perspectives

The advantage of using HA in cosmetic preparations was recognized very soon after its discovery. Difficulties in preparing large enough amounts of HA free of contaminating glycoproteins, lipids, and other tissue materials prevented its convenient use in commercial preparations including its use in cosmetics. Initially, HA was isolated from rooster combs. This HA was highly purified, and used in ophthalmology as a viscoelastic to replace fluid loss following cataract surgery. The revolution in biotechnology and molecular genetics made it possible more recently to engineer bacteria with augmented HA production, by amplifying the HA synthase gene. This generates a material much lower in molecular weight that has the additional disadvantage of frequent contamination by residual bacterial pyrogens. Such HA, processed from vast fermentation of engineered bacteria has reduced the price of HA drastically, bringing the price into a range that is reasonable for its use in cosmetics. However,...

Melaleuca Niaouli Punk tree Melaleuca quinquenervia Myrtaceae

Melaleuca quinquenervia is the source of niaouli oil and, like tea tree and cajuput oils from other Melaleuca species, is widely used in industry as a solvent, cleaning agent, in cosmetics, as a flavoring, as an antiseptic and medication, and the wood is employed for a variety of purposes. It has been widely introduced into Africa, Central America, Florida, Hawaii, India, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, South America, and the West Indies. It is an aggressive invader in the United States. It is confined to southern Florida, where it was introduced as an ornamental in 1906, occupying several million acres, primarily within the Everglades and surrounding areas, where the trees grow into immense impenetrable monospecific forests, virtually eliminating all other vegetation. Seeding from airplanes was carried out in the 1930s, and in the 1940s trees were planted inland (Binggeli, Hall, and Healey 1998). It was first cultivated in Hawaii in 1920, and subsequently over 1.7 million trees have...

Novel Variable Selection Methods

So and Karplus stressed that the selection of appropriate descriptors is an important step in the successful formulation of QSARs (122-125). They compared a number of feature selection routines and mapping methods including forward stepping regression (FSR), genetic function approximation (GFA), generalized simulated annealing (GSA), and genetic neural network (GNN). The GNN method uses a neural network to correlate activity with descriptors that are preselected by a genetic algorithm. A comparison of the predictive qualities for both training and test compounds showed that the GNN protocol achieves the best results and the choice of descriptors by the GNN method are consistent with established SARs on this series of compounds. Luke compared the method of evolutionary programming (EP) to GFA and described how EP can also generate multiple predictors (126). Evolutionary programming, as it is applied here, is able to very quickly generate a series of different predictors and, in direct...

Cinnamic Aldehyde Cinnamaldehyde 3Phenyl2Propenal CAS Registry Number [104552

This perfumed molecule is used as a fragrance in perfumes, a flavoring agent in soft drinks, ice creams, dentifrices, pastries, chewing-gum, etc. It can induce both contact urticaria and de-layed-type reactions. It can be responsible for dermatitis in the perfume industry or in food handlers. Cinnamic aldehyde is contained in fragrance mix. As a fragrance allergen, it has to be mentioned by name in cosmetics within the EU.


Dimethylaminopropylamine is an aliphatic amine present in amphoteric surfactants such as liquid soaps and shampoos. It is present as a residual impurity thought to be responsible for allergy from cocamidopropylbetaine. It is structurally similar to diethyl-aminopropylamine. It is also used as a curing agent for epoxy resins and an organic intermediate in chemical synthesises (ion exchangers, additives for flocculants, cosmetics and fuel additives, dyes and pesticides). Patch test has to be carefully interpreted, since the 1 aqueous solution has pH 11 (personal observation).

PVPEicosene Copolymer

PVP eicosene copolymer is the polymer of vinylpyrrolidone and of 1-eicosene, and one of the 11 PVP copolymers recorded in the International Nomenclature of Cosmetics Ingredients inventory system. This substance is utilized in cosmetics, in sunscreens to enhance their water resistance, and is an inert ingredient in pesticides. Contact sensitization to a close compound VP eicosene co-polymer was also reported.

Trichloroacetic Acid Peels

These are applied 4 to 5 times per day by the patient for 3 to 5 days until reepithelialization has occurred. At this point, the patient may resume wearing makeup and is instructed to use a skin moisturizer. Patients undergoing deeper TCA peels are instructed to follow the same directions but should expect reepithelialization to occur several days later, usually between 5 and 7 days. It is imperative that patients be instructed to avoid sun exposure for 6 weeks after their peel.

Lowpolarization Surface Electrodes

Warning The materials used to form Ag AgCl electrodes are relatively dangerous. Do not breathe dust or mist and do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing. When working with these materials, safety goggles must be worn. Contact lenses are not protective devices. Appropriate eye and face protection must be worn instead of, or in conjunction with, contact lenses. Wear disposable protective clothing to prevent exposure. Protective clothing includes lab coat and apron, flame- and chemical-resistant coveralls, gloves, and boots to prevent skin contact. Follow good hygiene and housekeeping practices when working with these materials. Do not eat, drink, or smoke while working with them. Wash hands before eating, drinking, smoking, or applying cosmetics.

Allergic Contact Dermatitis

Substances that can trigger allergic contact dermatitis include nickel or nickel-plated items, rubber, hair dyes, and cosmetics such as perfumes and lotions. (Some people are allergic to the chemicals used to preserve cosmetics, while others are allergic to the fragrances used in these products.) Rubber can cause a more serious allergic reaction that goes beyond a simple rash. Some people who are allergic to rubber (including the latex rubber used in rubber gloves) experience itchy, watery eyes and, in some cases, shortness of breath that could lead to anaphylactic shock (see page 383), a potentially fatal allergic reaction. Chromium contained in cement, leather, paints, and antirust products also can produce allergic contact dermatitis. Rashes produced by plants such as poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac also are considered allergic contact dermatitis. People who are sensitive to poison ivy, oak, and sumac also may be allergic to the oils contained in mango skins and cashew nut...

Cosmetic Science And Technology

Clinical Safety and Efficacy Testing of Cosmetics, edited by William C. Waggoner 13. Rheological Properties of Cosmetics and Toiletries, edited by Dennis Laba 16. Preservative-Free and Self-Preserving Cosmetics and Drugs Principles and Practice, edited by Jon J. Kabara and Donald S. Orth

Protected Areas and in situ Conservation

Conserving plants in their natural habitat is often regarded as the mainstay of plant species conservation, but this involves more than the simple expedient of putting a fence around a few individuals. Most species, except those that are recent immigrants, have evolved in concert with other species and environmental factors such as climate, soils, and moisture. Even the simplest of ecosystems are rarely random selections of animals and plants thrown together, but rather complex networks of mutual interactions and interdependencies. Thus, conservation of individual species needs to take into account the communities within which species occur, its genetic makeup, the particular role they play in maintaining other parts of the system, and the species on which they themselves depend.

Acts And Regulations Of Food Laws

This is the major body of legislation pertaining to food in South Africa Foodstuffs, Cosmetics and Disinfectants Act, 1972 Foodstuffs, Cosmetics and Disinfectants Act, 1972 (Act no. 54 of 1972), and its abundant array of regulations, is by far the most prescriptive set of rules for the food industry in South Africa. It falls under the control of the Department of Health, the government agency that performs a function similar to that of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.


New insights about the function of the skin, as well as the development of new products for skin care, make it necessary to question or redefine the definitions of cosmetics and drugs. Moreover, in the United States, Europe, and Japan, different definitions of cosmetics are used. The definition of a drug is more or less equivocal on these countries. According to the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic (FDC) Act, a drug is defined as an article intended for use in the diagnosis, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease or intended to affect the structure or any function of the body. council directive 93 35 EEC of June 14th, 1993 (2). The cosmetics directive

Enzyme Engineering

Enzymes have been used by humankind for millennia for a wide variety of biotechnological purposes, including the production of foodstuffs such as cheese, bread, wine, and beer. Currently, enzymes are used for a multitude of applications in a number of diverse areas ranging from detergent manufacturing to the production of fuels and pharmaceuticals, from food and feedstuff manufacturing to cosmetics production, as medicinal products, and as tools for research and development 3-8 .

Postpeel Care

Use of bland cleansers and moisturizers is essential. Recommended moisturizing agents include Cetaphil, SBR-Lipocream, or Aquaphor. Peeling related to Jessner's usually resolves in 2-7 days. Patients can resume the use of general skin care products after peeling subsides. Makeup can be worn to camouflage peeling. Excessive peeling, erythema, or irritation postpeel can be treated with low or mid- to high-potency steroids for 5-7 days. Use of such agents should be based on the extent of irritation and inflammation.


The underlying pathophysiology of all neurodegenerative diseases is the dysfunction and ultimate death of neurons. Neurodegenerative diseases are progressive in nature with a worsening of clinical symptoms over time. The neuronal loss in different neurodegenerative diseases is asynchronous with symptoms progressing as a result of a cumulative loss of the neurons that synthesize the neurotransmitters essential to signal propagation through the particular brain circuitry associated with a given disease. Different disease phenotypes occur with neuron loss depending on the neuronal population affected, the insult initiating the cell death cascade, and the genetic makeup of the individual. For example, memory or coordinated movement is not the function of a single specific neuronal population or brain region but involves several, such that the loss of one key element can perturb neurotransmitter homeostasis (excitatory versus inhibitory), thus affecting the final integrated output of the...

Botanical Extracts

The existence of the word ''cosmeceuticals'' is very much linked to the U.S. FDA definition of drugs and cosmetics in the 1938 FD&C Act. One can only speculate as to why 60 years of scientific knowledge and research have been ignored by the FDA in not revising the definition The European Commission has been wiser and its 1976 definition of cosmetics was modified in 1993 to acknowledge the fact that everything put on the skin or hair may have a physiological effect (1). It puts the responsibility on the industry to ascertain product safety and efficacy (claims justification) (2). Natural extracts, whether from animal, botanical, or mineral origin, have been used as ''active ingredients'' of drugs or cosmetics for as long as human history can go. Oils, butter, honey, beeswax, lead, and lemon juice were common ingredients of the beauty recipes from ancient Egypt. Many botanical extracts are used today in traditional medicine and large pharmaceutical companies are rediscovering them.

Extraction Process

Depending on the future use of the extract, various extraction processes can be used. As mentioned, it is industry's responsibility to ensure the absence of toxic substances that could lead to unwanted side effects. The drug approval process allows side effects to be present provided the benefits outweight the disadvantages, while the cosmetics consumer has the choice of using a product that may have side effects or using another that has none, the product with side effects would not be acceptable. Total extracts are most common in the cosmetics industry, rarely, if ever, used in drugs. They are generally known from traditional usage, which has a long history. Their activity is often empirical and their active ingredients are not always identified, but their benefits are, very often, without possible doubt. Their mode of preparation can be found in traditional pharmacopeas (China, India,

Homologous Grafts

Cadaveric rib cartilage is obtained from donors who must meet the same criteria required for organ donation, such as screening for VDRL, hepatitis B, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), tuberculosis, and slow virus testing. The selected donor rib is then exposed to 60,000 Gy g-waves to destroy cellular and viral pathogens. These grafts are well tolerated because their relative acellular makeup illicits minimal immune response by the host.1 Cadaveric rib grafts are best reserved for elderly patients who require minimized operative time and donor site morbidity. Moreover, the rib of an older patient may be calcified, making it difficult to shape. Success of implantation and maintenance of graft volume seems to be related to site of implantation. The nasal dorsum appears to tolerate implantation well, most likely because of its relative immobility.23,25 Rib cartilage, either autol-ogous or homologous, should therefore be reserved for dorsal nasal augmentation where it has the best chance...

Alloplastic Implants

Implantation of synthetic material into the nose must be done with considerable trepidation. Early postoperative or long-term failure is a risk of any implant placed into the nose. In general, synthetic material, if used in the nose, should be reserved for the relatively immobile dorsum and should be considered the last resort after autologous and homologous implants have been considered. Costantino28 described four concepts to be cognizant of when planning alloplastic implantation porosity, particle formation, elemental makeup, and location.


Gore-Tex has been the most promising implant in the PTFE group. It has been used extensively as a vascular graft since the early 1970s, and more recently as a facial implant. Subcutaneous augmentation material (SAM) was approved in 1993 for use in facial augmentation, including nasal augmenta-tion.52 Gore-Tex is a derivative of Teflon, made up of repeating units of carbon bound to fluorine. The material's interweaving fibrillar makeup along with relatively small pores (22 m) allows for stabilizing tissue ingrowth without significantly


Enzyme Regulation Stomach

Many agents are applied to the skin either deliberately or accidentally, with either beneficial or deleterious outcomes. The use of topical products was evident in ancient times, and there are reports of systemic benefits of topical anti-infective and hormonal agents in the 1940s. Modern transdermal patch technology was introduced in the late 1970s. The main interests in dermal absorption assessment are in the application of compounds to the skin (a) for local effects in dermatology (e.g., cor-ticosteroids for dermatitis) (b) for transport through the skin for systemic effects (e.g., nicotine patches for smoking cessation) (c) for surface effects (e.g., sunscreens, cosmetics, and anti-infectives) (d) to target deeper tissues (e.g., nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents NSAIDs for muscle inflammation) and (e) unwanted absorption (e.g., solvents in the workplace, agricultural chemicals, or allergens). Figure 2 summarizes these processes and sites of effect of compounds applied to the...


After the procedure, the patient is advised to use water-based creams and potent sunscreens. The erythema is extremely intense in the first 2 weeks, and gradually resolves over a period of about 2 months. During this time, the use of makeup with a green foundation is encouraged to assist the patient in resuming daily activities.

Oil composition

By anti-sense suppression or co-suppression of oleate desaturase it is possible to increase oleic acid (C18 1) by more than three-fold (from 24 to 80 ) in the oil of transgenic soybean. The same strategy was adopted to increase stearate (C18 0) by up to 30 both in canola and soybean oils. Unusual fatty acids can be produced in a plant by transferring a gene encoding the specific biosynthetic enzyme. An example can be seen in canola which naturally does not produce laurate (C12 0), while a new transgenic genotype does contain laurate. The oil content of some nut crops used for cosmetics, such as almond, could be increased or their composition could be modified by these techniques.

Bending The Rules

I had one accident which my dad knew about and the second accident. . . . I rear ended somebody while going to school and it was because I was putting on makeup so that was my mistake and I totally had to lie and change the story. . . . Then I got in an accident in my new car, it was two days after I had gotten it and I, what happened was I thought this guy was going to go, he was yielding and there was enough space and I thought he left but he didn't so I sped up and I rear ended him. And I was so nervous like oh, my God, what am I going to do, what am I going to do, so luckily he was just like, don't worry, he didn't say anything, he just came out of his car and looked to see

And a Drug

The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) establishes substantially different regulatory requirements in the United States for cosmetics and drugs. This chapter traces the history of U.S. regulatory policy for these two categories of products, discusses the application of U.S. law to products that fall within both categories at the same time (i.e., cosmetic drugs1), and considers potential strategies for resolving the long-standing concern that the drug provisions of the Act impose overly stringent requirements on cosmetic drugs.

Phenol Peels

Severe facial edema often occurs during the postpeel period. Patients are instructed to reapply Eucerin cream every 3 to 4 h for approximately 5 days. They are also instructed to shower twice daily during this time. During postoperative days 5 to 8, an antibiotic ointment is substituted for the Eucerin cream. Patients should be instructed not to pick or remove any eschar, as this may result in unwanted scarring. Generally, reepithelial-ization will occur 10 days after the peel. At this time, patients begin using Eucerin lotion liberally, and a 2.5 hydrocortisone cream two to three times daily. Patients are also allowed to begin wearing makeup to camouflage the peeled areas that now appear pink. As with all skin resurfacing techniques, patients should avoid exposure to the sun for at least 6 weeks postpeel. Patients should also be instructed to always wear a sunscreen of SPF 30 or higher when outdoors. Erythema The erythema present after phenol peeling is not a complication, but an...

Laser Resurfacing

Although some physicians prefer to use closed-wound dressings after laser skin resurfacing, we currently prefer open-wound dressings. We have used Flexan for regional and full-face laser skin resurfacing in the past but have had some difficulty keeping the dressing in place. Although easier for the patient, closed dressings limit postoperative wound inspection and may increase the incidence of postoperative infections. More recently, we have preferred to use open-wound care consisting of Elta or Eucerin cream for the first 5 to 7 days. This requires more patient compliance as the dressing is reapplied 4 to 5 times per day, but we find that reepithelialization occurs rapidly, with a lower risk of developing postoperative infections. At 7 to 10 days, once reepithelialization has occurred, the Eucerin cream is replaced with Eucerin lotion, which is continued for up to 6 weeks until the sebaceous glands begin to resume their normal functioning. After reepithelialization has occurred,...


Seborrheic Blepharitis Pictures

TREATMENT Patients should understand that this condition will likely be a life-long problem that can be controlled, but seldom eliminated. The main goals of treatment are to reduce meibomian gland inflammation and to reduce increased tear osmolality. Eyelid cosmetics may be an aggravating factor and should be avoided for a time. Scalp seborrhea must be controlled with 1 selenium sulfide shampoo, and a baby or no tears shampoo can be used for lid scrubs. Scales and crusts should be soaked and removed daily with cotton-tipped applicators or a moist washcloth wrapped around a finger. Cultures of the lid margins and of material expressed from the meibomian glands should be obtained for antibiotic sensitivities prior to starting topical antibiotics to suppress the bacterial growth. Preferred anti-infective agents in topical ointment form are bacitracin, sulfacetamide, and erythromycin. In the most severe cases a short course of systemic antibiotic, preferably a semisynthetic penicillin,...


Over the years, it has been proposed that many toxins may cause multiple sclerosis (MS) or worsen its symptoms. Recent reports have associated MS with aspartame use and mercury from dental amalgam, both of which are discussed elsewhere in this book. It also has been claimed that MS is provoked by cosmetics or by chemicals in the environment in the form of pollution, aerosol sprays, low levels of formaldehyde, and fumes from solvents. In food, it has been claimed that additives and low levels of residual fertilizers and pesticides may be important. On the basis of concerns about toxic causes for MS and other diseases, an entire field known as clinical ecology has emerged.


Octocrylene is an anti-UVB filter used in cosmetics that may induce photoallergic contact dermatitis. Octyl gallate, a gallate ester (E 311), is an antioxidant added to foods and cosmetics to prevent oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. Cases were sparsely reported in food industry or from lipsticks. Patch tests are frequently irritant.

Specific History

Inappropriate self-treatment with topical 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) obtained from relatives or prescribed by misguided practitioners can alter lesions or hide established malignancies without effectively removing them. Patients will also attempt to treat themselves with various cosmetics and patent medications, but soon discover that this is fruitless.

European Community

All cosmetic products, except those intended to be applied in the vicinity of the eyes, in particular eye makeup and makeup remover. pure color plus its salts and lakes are allowed, unless prohibited under Annex II (the list substances that cosmetics may not contain). Exception barium, strontium, and zirconium.


Ages 20s-30s Early photoaging Mild dyschromia No keratoses Minimal wrinkling Minimal, no makeup Minimal, or no scarring Usually aged 50-65 Dyschromia, telangiectasias Visible keratoses Wrinkling at rest Always wears makeup Moderate acne scarring Patient age 60-75 Actinic keratoses Prior skin cancers Wrinkling throughout Makeup cakes & cracks Severe acne scarring

Organic Pigments

In cosmetics, most lakes are based on aluminum, although affected by extremes of pH, resulting in reforming of the soluble dye or ''bleeding.'' They are fairly transparent and not particularly light-fast. Toners are colorants made with other approved metals besides aluminum, such as barium and calcium. Generally, they are more resistant to heat, light, and pH, although extremes of pH can result in shade changes. Generally, many organic colorants are unsuitable for certain cosmetics because of their chemical nature. D&C Red 36 a typical nonsoluble azo color, is not recommended for lipstick because of its very slight solubility in oils and waxes, when it tends to crystallize upon continual reheating of the lipstick mass. Soluble azo dyes such as FD&C Yellow 5 and 6 and D&C Red 33 lakes are often used in lipstick and nail lacquer. Sparingly soluble types such as D&C Red 6 is not highly soluble but the barium lake of Red 6 and the calcium lake of Red 7 are the most...

Microfine Pigments

Microfine ultrafine nanosized Pigments have a primary particle size below 100 nm larger agglomerates aggregates can be present. Properties such as surface area, bulk density, vehicle absorption, and UV absorption differ significantly from those of conventional pigment. Microfine titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, and iron oxides can be utilized in a range of color cosmetics to provide unique visual effects as well as UV protection. In pressed powders, anhydrous, and emulsified formulations, significant SPF values can be achieved in formulations having a translucent, natural looking finish. With microfine pigments, formulations for darker skin tones can be formulated which avoid the ''ashy'' or ''made-up'' appearance caused by conventional opaque pigments.


All trans-retinol, also known as vitamin A1, is the predominant circulating retinoid in human tissue. Although retinol is believed to be a precursor of other retinoids, the metabolic pathways of the physiologic and pharmacologic effects are not well understood. They are used extensively in cosmeceutical formulations for photoaging. Retinols are generally recognized as safe ingredients in the United States and are widely used in cosmetics and toiletries, most often at a concentration of 0.1-1.0 21,22 .

Subset Selection

Genetic algorithms are modeled after natural selection and search for an optimal solution to a problem by allowing a population of individual solutions to evolve, subject to a fitness constraint. In the present case, the candidate solutions are individual combinatorial libraries that are subsets of the full virtual library, and the fitness constraint is calculated using a suitable fitness function. Individual libraries are specified by encoding the candidate reagents for each dimension of a library as a gene on a chromosome each gene is a list of binary variables that indicate the presence or absence of the corresponding reagent in the individual library. By specifying which reagents are present along each gene, the resulting library can be readily deduced. An initial population of libraries is generated by randomly setting the desired number of reagents in each gene as present, and then point-mutations and cross-over events among compatible genes are allowed in the population to...

Ethyl Alcohol

Alcohol is rapidly absorbed from all the mucosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract. In fasting individuals, 20-25 of a dose of alcohol is absorbed from the stomach and 75-80 from the small intestine.6 Food delays the absorption of alcohol. Following ingestion of alcohol on an empty stomach, peak blood alcohol concentration occurs within one half to 2 h (average 0.75-1.35 h), whereas with food in the stomach, peak levels are reached within 1-6 h (average 1.06-2.12 h). The delay in reaching peak blood alcohol is directly proportional to the size of the meal and inversely proportional to the amount of time between food and alcohol consumption. The makeup of the meal appears to have very little influence at all on the rate of absorption.


Mild to moderate facial acne vulgaris. Contraindications Pregnancy. Use on eczematous skin. Use of cosmetics or skin medications that have strong drying effect. Special Concerns Use with caution during lactation. Safety and efficacy have not been determined in children less than 12 years of age. Psoriasis may worsen from month 4 to 12 compared with first 3 months of therapy. Use with caution with drugs that cause photosensitivity. Side Effects Dermatologic Pruritus, photosensitivity, burning stinging,

Poly Ethylene Glycol

In vivo PEG undergoes limited chemical degradation and the body clearance depends upon its molecular weight below 20 kDa it is easily secreted into the urine, while higher molecular weight PEGs are eliminated more slowly and the clearance through liver becomes predominant. The threshold for kidney filtration is about 40-60 kDa (a hydrodynamic radius of approximately 45 A80), which represents the albumin excretion limit. Over this limit the polymer remains in circulation and mainly accumulates in liver. Alcohol dehydrogenase can degrade low-molecular-weight PEGs, and chain cleavage can be catalyzed by cytochrome P450 microsomial enzymes.81 Some branched PEGs may also undergo a molecular weight reduction when the hydrolysis and loss of one polymer chain is catalyzed by anchimeric assistance.82 However, regarding safety concerns when choosing the PEG's molecular weight in the design of a new drug-polymer conjugate 'it is commonly accepted to use PEGs below 40 kDa' to avoid accumulation...

Skin Tests

Methodological details regarding dilution, vehicle, pH measurement, open test, closed patch test, repetitive open application test (ROAT), and use test are dealt with in Chap. 22. In Dortmund we found large Finn chambers (12 mm diameter) useful for testing cosmetics with low irritancy (e.g., moisturizers, lip cosmetics, sunscreens, eye drops 14 Fig. 1).


This emulsifying agent can be contained in many products such as cosmetics, topical medicines, metalworking cutting fluids, and color film developers. Traces may exist in other ethanolamines such as mono- and diethanolamine. Contact allergy seems to be rarer than previously thought.

Boils and Carbuncles

A boil is a collection of pus beneath the top layer of skin. It is caused by bacterial infection of a hair follicle, the tiny pit in the surface of the skin in which a hair grows. Boils can cluster under the skin such a cluster is known as a carbuncle. Boils may result from infection of a cut or scrape in the skin, poor hygiene, cosmetics that clog the pores, exposure to chemicals, and friction from tight clothing or shoes. Perspiration contributes to the development of boils and carbuncles and can make them worse. Boils and carbuncles usually appear on the scalp, beard area of the face, arms, legs, underarms, and buttocks.

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