Tang et al. (2001), Mutch et al. (2003)
3.0 d, 0.50 p, 0.66c
Kappers et al. (2001), Mutch et al. (2003)
0.7 d, 0.01 p, 3.38c
Kappers et al. (2001), Mutch et al. (2003)
Human liver microsomes
0.29 d, 0.37 p, 0.57c
Kappers et al. (2001), Mutch et al. (2003)
Sabourault et al. (2001)
Dunkov etal. (1997)
Guzov etal. (1998)
Hatano and Scott (1993)
Housefly CSMA microsomes
Ugaki etal. (1985)
Housefly Akita-fa microsomes
Ugaki etal. (1985)
Heliothis virescens microsomes
Konno and Dauterman (1989)
Heliothis virescens NC-86a microsomes
Konno and Dauterman (1989)
d, diazinon; p, ethyl parathion; c, chlorpyriphos; f, fenitrothion; mp, methyl parathion.
d, diazinon; p, ethyl parathion; c, chlorpyriphos; f, fenitrothion; mp, methyl parathion.
populations from West Africa, triazophos shows negative cross-resistance with pyrethroids, and in this case the synergism shown by the OP towards the pyrethroids appears to be due to an enhanced activation to the oxon form (Martin et al., 2003). These interactions were observed in vivo or with microsomes, but it is likely that they do reflect the properties of single P450 enzymes with broad substrate specificity rather than the fortuitous coordinate regulation of different P450 enzymes with distinct specificities.
Organophosphorus compounds such as disulfo-ton and fenthion can also be activated by thioether oxidation (formation of sulfoxide and sulfone), but it is not clear whether these reactions are catalyzed in insects by a P450 or by a flavin monooxygenase (FMO). Further examples of oxidative bioactivat-ion of organophosphorus compounds have been discussed (Drabek and Neumann, 1985).
The toxicity of fipronil to house flies is increased sixfold by the synergist piperonyl butoxide, whereas the desulfinyl photodegradation product is not detoxified substantially by P450 (Hainzl and Casida, 1996; Hainzl et al., 1998). Conversion of fipronil to its sulfone appears to be catalyzed by a P450 enzyme in Ostrinia nubilalis (Durham et al., 2002) and in Diabrotica virgifera (Scharf et al., 2000). In the latter, the toxicity of fipronil sulfone is about the same as that of the parent compound, and piperonyl butoxide has only a marginal effect as synergist. In contrast, synergists antagonize the toxicity of fipronil in Blattella germanica, suggesting that oxidation to the sulfone represents an activation step in this species (Valles et al., 1997).
The now banned cyclodiene insecticides aldrin, heptachlor, and isodrin are epoxidized by P450
enzymes to environmentally stable, toxic epoxides, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, and endrin (Brooks, 1979; Drabek and Neumann, 1985). Recombinant CYP6A1, CYP6A2, and CYP12A1 can catalyze these epoxidations (see Table 1). Examples of proinsecticide metabolism include the activation of chlorfenapyr by N-dealkylation (Black et al., 1994) and of diafenthiuron by S-oxidation (Kayser and Eilinger, 2001). In each case, the insect P450-dependent activation is a key in the selective toxicity of these proinsecticides that target mitochondrial respiration. Recombinant housefly CYP6A1 catalyzes the activation of chlorfenapyr (V.M. Guzov, M. Kao, B.C. Black, and R. Feyereisen, unpublished data). In H. virescens, toxicity of chlorfenapyr is negatively correlated with cypermethrin toxicity (Pimprale et al., 1997). Genetic analysis indicates that a single factor is involved so the same P450 that activates chlorfenapyr may also detoxify cypermethrin in this species (Figure 23). A similar case of negative cross-resistance of chlorfenapyr in a pyrethroid-resistant strain has been reported in the hornfly Haematobia irritans (Sheppard and Joyce, 1998).
The metabolism of imidacloprid is also of interest in this respect. Although not extensively studied to date, there is evidence that piperonyl butoxide can synergize the toxicity of imidacloprid, but P450-dependent metabolism can also lead to several bio-active metabolites in some insects. How these are further metabolized and how resistance can be caused by P450 attack on this molecule remains unclear (see however Section 188.8.131.52.5).
In vivo synergism by piperonyl butoxide, a typical inhibitor of P450 enzymes (see Section 184.108.40.206.1), is often used to implicate a P450-mediated detoxification, and there are innumerable such examples in
the literature. The inference is much stronger when two unrelated synergists are used in vitro, and when metabolites of the pesticide are identified. For instance, pyriproxifen is hydroxylated by fat body and midgut microsomes of larval house flies to 40-OH-pyriproxyfen and 5"-OH-pyriproxyfen and these activities are inhibited by PB and TCPPE (Zhang etal., 1998).
The study of xenobiotic metabolism by individual P450 enzymes expressed in heterologous systems has barely begun (Table 1). Whereas the CYP6 enzymes clearly comprise some enzymes with ''broad and overlapping'' substrate specificity, even closely related enzymes of this family can differ substantially in their catalytic competence. The task of predicting which xenobiotic or natural product will be metabolized by which type of P450 is currently not possible.
220.127.116.11. P450 and Host Plant Specialization
The interactions of plants and insects, and more specifically the role of plant chemistry on the specialization of phytophagous insects have generated a vast literature. ''Secondary'' plant substances are variously seen to regulate insect behavior and/or to serve as weapons in a coevolutionary ''arms race'' (Dethier, 1954; Fraenkel, 1959; Ehrlich and Raven, 1964; Jermy, 1984; Bernays and Graham, 1988). In chemical ecology alone, ''no other area is quite so rife with theory'' (Berenbaum, 1995). Many of the theories and some of the experiments implicitly or explicitly deal with the insect's ability to metabolize plant secondary substances by P450 and other enzymes. In the case of behavioral cues, we are far from understanding the true importance of P450 enzymes in the integration of chemosensory information, e.g., as ''odorant degrading enzymes.'' In the case of detoxification, however, the landmark paper of Krieger etal. (1971) can be seen as echoing the Fraenkel (1959) paper, by exposing the raison d'etre of P450 enzymes. They stated that ''higher activities of midgut microsomal oxidase enzymes in polyphagous than in monophagous species indicates that the natural function of these enzymes is to detoxify natural insecticides present in the larval food plants.'' In that 1971 study, aldrin epoxidation was measured in gut homogenates of last instar larvae from 35 species of Lepidoptera. Polyphagous species had on average a 15 times higher activity than monophagous species. This trend was seen in sucking insects as well, with a 20-fold lower aldrin epoxidase activity in the oleander aphid Aphis nerii when compared to the potato aphid Myzus euphor-biae or to the green peach aphid M. persicae (Mullin, 1986). The former is a specialist feeder on two plant families, Asclepiadaceae and Apocyana-ceae, whereas the latter two are generalists found on 30-72 plant families. The concept extended to other detoxification enzymes and was broadened to cover prey/predator, e.g., in mites where the predatory mite has a five times lower aldrin epoxidase activity than its herbivorous prey (Mullin et al., 1982). The toxicity of the natural phototoxin a-terthienyl is inversely propotional to the level of its metabolism in Lepidoptera and is related to diet breadth. Metabolism (4.0 nmol/min/nmol P450) is highest in O. nubilalis that feeds on numerous phototoxic Asteraceae, lower in H. virescens that has a broad diet, including some Asteraceae that are nonphototoxic, and lowest in M. sexta, a specialist of Solanaceae (Iyengar et al., 1990).
The conceptual framework of Krieger et al. has been challenged (Gould, 1984) and defended (Ahmad, 1986). An alternative view (Berenbaum et al., 1992) proposes that aldrin epoxidation represents ''P450s with broad substrate specificity [that] are most abundant in insects that encounter a wide range of host plant metabolites.'' A careful repetition of the Krieger experiments on lepidopteran larvae from 58 species of New South Wales failed to show significant differences in aldrin epoxidation between monophagous and polyphagous species (Rose, 1985). High activity in both monophagous and polyphagous species was invariably linked to the presence of monoterpenes in the host diet. The evidence presented in the sections below indicates that polyphagous and oligophagous species alike rely on the ability to draw on a great diversity of P450 genes, encoding a great diversity of specific and less specific enzymes and regulated by a great diversity of environmental sensing mechanisms -induction. The ability to induce P450 enzymes and deal with a wide range of toxic chemicals in the diet has been thought to present a ''metabolic load'' for polyphagous species, with specialists restricting their ''detoxification energy'' to one or a few harmful substrates (e.g., Whittaker and Feeny, 1971). However, careful studies in both oligophagous and polypha-gous species have refuted this concept of metabolic load (e.g., Neal, 1987; Appel and Martin, 1992).
18.104.22.168.2. Host plant chemistry and herbivore P450 Cactophilic Drosophila species from the Sonoran desert are specialized to specific columnar cactus hosts by their dependency on unusual sterols (D. pachea) or by their unique ability to detoxify their host's allelochemicals, notably isoquinoline alkaloids and triterpene glycosides (Frank and Fogleman, 1992; Fogleman et al., 1998). P450-mediated detoxification was shown by the loss of larval viability in media that contained both allelo-chemicals and piperonyl butoxide, and by the induction of total P450 or alkaloid metabolism by the cactus allelochemicals or by phenobarbital (Frank and Fogleman, 1992; Fogleman et al., 1998). Several P450s of the CYP4, CYP6, CYP9, and CYP28 families are induced by cactus-derived isoquinoline alkaloids and by phenobarbital, but not by triter-pene glycosides; only a CYP9 gene was induced by alkaloids and not by phenobarbital (Danielson et al., 1997, 1998; Fogleman et al., 1998). The capacity to detoxify isoquinoline alkaloids was not related to
DDT or propoxur tolerance, and while phenobarbital induced P450s capable of metabolizing the alkaloid carnegine in D. melanogaster, this was not sufficient to produce in vivo tolerance (Danielson et al., 1995). Selection of D. melanogaster with Saguaro alkaloids over 16 generations, however, led to P450-mediated resistance to the cactus alkaloids (Fogleman, 2000). These studies suggest the evolution of specific responses in the cactophilic species involving the recruitment of a phylogeneti-cally unrelated subset of P450 genes in each instance of specialization of a fly species on its host cactus.
The oligophagous tobacco hornworm (M. sexta) feeds essentially on Solanaceae and its adaptation to the high levels of insecticidal nicotine found in tobacco depends largely on metabolic detoxification, although other tolerance mechanisms may be contributing as well (Snyder and Glendinning, 1996). Hornworm larvae fed an nicotine-free artificial diet (naive insects) are rapidly poisoned by the ingestion of a nicotine-supplemented diet, but this diet is not deterrent. Poisoning is evidenced by convulsions and inhibition of feeding. The small amount of ingested nicotine induces its own metabolism, so that approximately 36 h later the larvae resume feeding normally, without further signs of poisoning. The inhibition of feeding and its resumption after nicotine exposure is directly related to P450 induction. Indeed, treatment with piperonyl butoxide, which itself has no effect on feeding, inhibits the increase in nicotine-diet consumption that occurs once nicotine metabolism has been induced (Snyder and Glendinning, 1996). Naive insects metabolize nicotine to nicotine 1-N-oxide at a low level, whereas nicotine-fed insects metabolize it further to cotinine-N-oxide at a higher level (Snyder et al., 1994). These reactions are catalyzed by one or more P450 enzymes (Snyder et al., 1993). The effects of nicotine on marker P450 activities are complex: the metabolism of three substrates is induced at low nicotine levels, seven are only induced at higher levels, and three are unaffected (Snyder etal., 1993). CYP4M1 and CYP4M3 are moderately induced in the midgut but not in the fat body, but CYP4M3 and CYP9A2 are not affected by nicotine (Snyder et al., 1995; Stevens et al., 2000).
P450 induction has also been inferred in the po-lyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae, where the performance of a bean-adapted population on tomato was severely compromised by piperonyl but-oxide (Agrawal et al., 2002). The P450 inhibitor did not reduce acceptance of tomato as a host, nor did it reduce the performance of the bean-adapted population on bean, strongly suggesting a postingestive induction of P450 as a mechanism of acclimation to the novel host. In the polyphagous noctuid Spodoptera frugiperda, ingestion of indole 3-carbinol increases once the continuous exposure to this toxic compound has induced P450 enzymes (Glendinning and Slansky, 1995).
The adaptation of specialist herbivores to toxic components of their host plants is best documented in the genus Papilio. The black swallowtail, P. polyxenes, feeds on host plants from just two families, the Apia-ceae (Umbelliferae) and the Rutaceae. These plants are phytochemically similar, particularly in their ability to synthesize furanocoumarins. Biogenetically derived from umbelliferone (7-hydroxycoumarin) the linear furanocoumarins (related to psoralen) and angular furanocoumarins (related to angelicin) are toxic to nonadapted herbivores (Berenbaum, 1990). This toxicity is enhanced by light as furanocou-marins are best known for their UV photoreactivity leading to adduct formation with macromolecules, particularly DNA. Papilio polyxenes has become a model in the study of adaptation to dietary furano-coumarins. Xanthotoxin, a linear furanocoumarin, induces its own metabolism in a dose-dependent fashion when added to the diet of P. polyxenes larvae (Cohen et al., 1989). This P450-dependent metabolism proceeds probably by an initial epoxida-tion of the furan ring followed by further oxidative attack and opening of the ring, leading to nontoxic hydroxylated carboxylic acids (Ivie et al., 1983; Bull et al., 1986). Inducible xanthotoxin metabolism is observed in all leaf-feeding stages of P. polyxenes, and is higher in early instars (Harrison et al., 2001). Xanthotoxin induces its own metabolism in the midgut, but also in the fat body and integument (Petersen et al., 2001). The metabolism of bergapten and sphondin is also induced by dietary xantho-toxin. Levels of total midgut microsomal P450s are unaffected by xanthotoxin, and photoactivation is not required for induction (Cohen et al., 1989). The metabolism of xanthotoxin is 10 times faster in P. polyxenes than in the nonadapted S. frugiperda (Bull et al., 1986). Papilio polyxenes microsomal P450s are also less sensitive to the inhibitory effects of xanthotoxin. NADPH-dependent metabolism of xanthotoxin leads to an uncharacterized reactive metabolite that can covalently bind P450 or neighboring macromolecules, i.e., xanthotoxin can act as a ''suicide substrate'' (Neal and Wu, 1994). This NADPH-dependent covalent labeling of microsomal proteins is seven times higher in M. sexta than in P. polyxenes. Inhibition of aldrin epoxidation and p-nitroanisole O-demethylation by xanthotoxin is also 6- and 300-fold higher, respectively, in M. sexta than in P. polyxenes (Zumwalt and Neal, 1993). Myristicin, a methylene dioxyphenyl compound (see Section 22.214.171.124.4) found in the host plant parsnip is less inhibitory to P. polyxenes than to H. zea (Berenbaum and Neal, 1985; Neal and Berenbaum, 1989).
A distinct protein band of 55 kDa appears in midgut microsomes of xanthotoxin-treated P. polyxenes larvae and its microsequencing led to the cloning of CYP6B1, a P450 shown to be inducible by xanthotoxin or parsnip (Cohen et al., 1992). Several variants of CYP6B1 have been cloned that presumably represent different alleles, v1, v2, and v3. The three variants differ from each other at 3, 6, or 9 amino acid positions (Cohen et al., 1992; Prapaipong et al., 1994). The CYP6B1 gene is selectively induced by linear furanocoumarins. Initial studies suggested that additional, related P450 transcripts were present in P. polyxenes and inducible by angular furanocoumarins (Hung et al., 1995b). Expression in the baculovirus system revealed that CYP6B1 v1 and v2 metabolize the linear furanocoumarins ber-gapten, xanthotoxin, isopimpinellin, and psoralen (Ma et al., 1994). Little metabolism of the angular furanocoumarin angelicin was observed in this early study but improvements in the heterologous expression system by coexpression of insect P450 reduc-tase increased rates of metabolism sufficiently to confirm the role of CYP6B1 in the metabolism of angelicin as well (Wen et al., 2003). The furano-coumarins were metabolized in the improved expression system with the following preference: xanthotoxin > psoralen > angelicin. The latter is less efficiently metabolized in vivo (Li et al., 2003) and P. polyxenes is less adapted to it (Berenbaum and Feeny, 1981).
A second P450 was cloned from P. polyxenes; it encodes CYP6B3 that is 88% identical to CYP6B1 (Hung et al., 1995a). CYP6B3 is expressed at lower basal levels than CYP6B1, but both CYP6B1 and CYP6B3 are inducible by xanthotoxin, sphondin, angelicin, and bergapten in the midgut. CYP6B3 responds more readily to the angular furanocoumar-ins than CYP6B1 (Hung et al., 1995a), and CYP6B1 is more inducible than CYP6B3 (Harrison et al., 2001). A later study showed that CYP6B1 is induced by xanthotoxin in the midgut, fat body, and integument, but CYP6B3 is induced by xanthotoxin only in the fat body (Petersen et al., 2001).
The presence of CYP6B-like transcripts in species related to P. polyxenes was suggested early on by positive signals on northern blots with RNA from Papilio brevicauda and Papilio glaucus that were treated with xanthotoxin (Cohen et al., 1992). Papilio brevicauda is like P. polyxenes, a species that feeds on furanocoumarin-containing Apiaceae, but Papilio glaucus is a generalist that encounters furanocoumarin-containing plants (e.g., hoptree, Ptelea trifoliata) only occasionally. Xanthotoxin, nevertheless, induces its own metabolism in all three species (Cohen et al., 1992). Papilio glaucus is highly polyphagous and is reported to feed on over 34 plant families, and therefore offers an interesting contrast to P. polyxenes. Esterase, glutathione S-transferase, and P450 activities are highly variable and dependent on the species of deciduous tree foliage that this species feeds on (Lindroth, 1989). Papilio glaucus has significant levels of linear and angular furanocoumarin metabolism, that are highly inducible by xanthotoxin (Hung et al., 1997). A series of nine CYP6B genes and some presumed allelic variants were cloned from P. glaucus (Hung et al., 1996, 1997; Li et al., 2001, 2002a). The first two genes CYP6B4 and CYP6B5 are products of a recent gene duplication event, and their promoter region is very similar (Hung et al., 1996). Six additional and closely related members of the CYP6B subfamily were cloned from Papilio canadensis, another generalist closely related to P. glaucus but not known to feed on plants containing furanocoumar-ins (Li et al., 2001, 2002a). Xanthotoxin induced CYP6B4-like and CYP6B17-like genes in both species, but the level of furanocoumarin metabolism was lower in P. canadensis (Li et al., 2001). This wide spectrum of CYP6B enzymes represents a wide range of activities towards furanocoumarin substrates. Whereas CYP6B4 of P. glaucus expressed in the baculovirus system efficiently metabolizes these compounds (Hung et al., 1997), CYP6B17 of P. glaucus, and CYP6B21 and CYP6B25 from P. canadiensis have a more modest catalytic capacity (Li et al. , 2003). Papilio troilus , a relative of P. glaucus that specializes on Lauraceae that lack fur-anocoumarins, has undetectable basal or induced xanthotoxin metabolism (Cohen et al., 1992).
The genus Papilio thus offers a complete range of situations: (1) specialists that deal efficiently with furanocoumarins by inducible expression of CYP6B genes; (2) generalists that also carry related CYP6B genes, but whose inducibility and metabolism are less efficient; and (3) nonadapted specialists that appear to have lost the inducible CYP6B panoply (Berenbaum et al., 1996; Berenbaum, 1999, 2002; Li et al., 2003).
The metabolism of furanocoumarins or the in-ducibility of P450 by these compounds is not restricted to Papilionidae. Xanthotoxin induces its own metabolism in the parsnip webworm, Depressaria pastinacella (Nitao, 1989). This species belongs to the Oecophoridae, and is a specialist feeder on three genera of furanocoumarin-containing Apiaceae. It is highly tolerant to these compounds and metabolizes them not just by opening the furan ring, but in the case of sphondin, it is also capable of O-demethylation (Nitao et al., 2003). Although furanocoumarin metabolism is inducible, the basal (uninduced) activity is high (Nitao, 1989), and the response is a general one, with little discrimination of the type of furanocoumarin inducer or the type of furanocoumarin metabolized (Cianfrogna et al., 2002). The P450 enzymes involved in furanocou-marin metabolism by D. pastinacella are unknown. Low stringency northern hybridization failed to elicit a signal with a CYP6B1 probe (Cohen et al., 1992).
A species that does not encounter furanocoumar-ins, the solanaceous oligophage M. sexta, responds to xanthotoxin by inducing CYP9A4 and CYP9A5 (Stevens et al., 2000). The generalist S. frugiperda also induces P450 as well as glutathione S-trans-ferases in response to xanthotoxin (Yu, 1984; Kirby and Ottea, 1995). It has low basal P450-mediated xanthotoxin metabolism, but this metabolism is inducible by a variety of compounds including terpenes and flavone (Yu, 1987). In the highly polyphagous H. zea, a similar situation is encountered. Xanthotoxin metabolism is low, but inducible by itself as well as by phenobarbital and a-cyperme-thrin (Li et al., 2000b). A number of CYP6B genes have been cloned from these Helicoverpa species. CYP6B8 of H. zea is very close in sequence to CYP6B7 from H. armigera, and it is inducible by xanthotoxin and phenobarbital (Li et al., 2000a). The high conservation of sequence in the SRS1 region suggests that the CYP6B enzymes of Helicov-erpa are competent in furanocoumarin metabolism as indeed, these species occasionally encounter fur-anocoumarins in their diet. The CYP6B9/B27 and B8/B28 genes are pairs of recently duplicated genes (Li et al., 2002b). Their tissue and developmental pattern of expression is subtly different as is their pattern of induction by a variety of chemicals (Li et al., 2002c).
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