Homeopathic Remedies for Cystitis
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is defined as infection located in the lower tract (bladder or urethra) or in the upper tract (ureters or kidneys). The peak incidence of UTI observed in children occurs between 2 and 6 years of age, but can be observed at any age. The incidence of UTI in children also varies by gender females have a 10 to 30 greater risk of developing a UTI males have a 50 greater risk of developing a recurrent UTI and during the newborn-age range only, male infants are at a greater risk of developing a UTI. Etiologic factors associated with UTI in children include 75 to 80 of bacterial infections are caused by Escherichia coli. Bacterial organisms occur more frequently than viral or fungal organisms which are more frequent in low-birth weight and preterm infants. The higher incidence in female children is attributed to the female child's anatomic differences from the male child (shorter urethra with an increased chance of contamination caused by the close proximity to...
Quinolones that are useful in treating complicated and uncomplicated cystitis include ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, enoxacin (Penetrex), lomefloxacin (Maxaquin), sparfloxacin (Zagam) and levofloxacin (Levaquin). 4. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole remains the antibiotic of choice in the treatment of uncomplicated UTIs in young women. Fluoroquinolones are recommended for patients who cannot tolerate sulfonamides or trimethoprim or who have a high frequency of antibiotic resistance. Three days is the optimal duration of treatment for uncomplicated cystitis. A seven-day course should be considered in pregnant women, diabetic women and women who have had symptoms for more than one week.
In males with a urinary tract infection (UTI) and or suspected pyelonephritis, US is valuable to identify common causes of UTI such as epididymitis, orchitis and prostatitis. Patients with a neurogenic bladder secondary to a spinal cord injury pose a difficult problem as the urine is usually colonized. Development of systemic symptoms should prompt rapid imaging as these patients may not be sensate to pain and a devastating abscess can develop quickly 21 . Finally, in order to diminish radiation dose to pregnant patients, US with power Doppler may be at XGP, an inflammatory condition with a marked female predominance, is associated with recurrent UTIs caused by proteases, or E. coli bacteria. An infection-based stone is seen in the majority of cases. The classic radiographic triad includes reniform enlargement of the kidney, a renal stone, and markedly decreased or absent renal function in the affected kidney. Localized XGP occurs in 20 of cases and can mimic renal neoplasms on...
However, urinary tract infections are common, especially among women. An 287 An infection can begin when microorganisms, usually bacteria from the digestive tract (such as Escherichia coli, also called E coli), accumulate at the opening of the urethra. An infection that affects only the urethra is called urethritis. From the urethra, bacteria often move up to the bladder, causing a bladder infection (cystitis). Sexually transmitted microorganisms, such as those that cause gonorrhea and chlamydia, also can infect the urinary tract. If a bladder infection is not treated promptly, bacteria may move up the ureters, causing a kidney infection (pyelonephritis), which can be serious. Kidney infections also can occur when bacteria or other microorganisms are carried to the kidneys through the bloodstream. When this happens, an obstruction in a ureter can trap infectious agents in the kidneys. Urinary tract infections do not always cause symptoms. However, most men with a urinary tract...
Sexually active young women are most at risk for UTIs. B. Approximately 90 percent of uncomplicated cystitis episodes are caused by Escherichia coli, 10 to 20 percent are caused by coagulase-negative Staphylococcus saprophyticus and 5 percent or less are caused by other Enterobacteriaceae organisms or enterococci. Up to one-third of uropathogens are resistant to ampicillin and, but the majority are susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (85 to 95 percent) and fluoroquinolones (95 percent). Urinary Tract Infections in Adults Acute uncomplicated cystitis Recurrent cystitis in young women If the patient has more than three cystitis episodes per year, treat prophylacti-cally with postcoital, patient- directed or continuous daily therapy Acute cystitis in young men Same as for acute uncomplicated cystitis Complicated urinary tract infection Catheter-a ssociated urinary tract infection Antibiotic Therapy for Urinary Tract Infections Acute uncomplicated urinary tract infections in...
Cranberry juice is of relevance because urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common with MS, and cranberry juice has a long history of use in their prevention and treatment. From the 1920s to the 1970s, it was believed that the acid from cranberry juice makes the urine acidic and that this increase in acidity prevents and treats UTIs. However, subsequent studies showed that the effect of cranberry juice was probably due to the presence of two types of compounds, fructose and a class of chemicals known as proanthocyani-dins. These chemicals do not destroy bacteria. Instead, they appear to keep bacteria from attaching to the walls of the urinary tract. As a result, it is believed that bacteria present in the urinary tract are unable to cause an infection and are simply passed in the urine. In addition to these effects, cranberry juice, like antibiotic medications, also may kill some bacteria. Limited clinical studies indicate that cranberry may prevent UTIs in some people. A beneficial...
A complicated UTI is one that occurs because of enlargement of the prostate gland, blockages, or the presence of resistant bacteria. C. Enterococci are frequently encountered uropathogens in complicated UTIs. In areas in which vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium is prevalent, quinupristin-dalfopristin (Synercid) may be useful. D. Patients with complicated UTIs require at least a 10- to 14-day course of therapy. Follow-up urine cultures should be performed within 10 to 14 days after treatment.
For a clinical trial, it is recognized that it is impossible to address all questions with one trial. Therefore, it is important to identify the primary and secondary response variables that will be used to address the scientific and or medical questions of interest. The response variables (or clinical endpoints) are usually chosen at the outset, since they are needed to fulfill the study objectives. Once the response variables are chosen, the possible outcomes of treatment are defined, and those showing efficacy and safety are clearly indicated. In practice, it is suggested that the selected clinical endpoints be validated (reliable and reproducible), widely available, understandable, and accepted. For example, in an antibiotic trial the outcome might be defined as cure, cure with relapse, or treatment failure, and the response variables may be pyrexia, dysuria, and frequency of urination. The criteria for the evaluation of a cure could be that all signs or symptoms of urinary tract...
Those patients with the most severe cases, in which there is total urinary obstruction, chronic urinary retention, and recurrent urinary tract infection, usually require surgery. Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is the most common surgical intervention. The procedure is performed by inserting a resectoscope through the urethra. Hypertrophic tissue is cut away, thereby relieving pressure on the urethra. Prostatectomy can be performed, in which the portion of the prostate gland causing the obstruction is removed.
Nonhormonally responsive diseases should be considered for pain that is not related to menses, including chronic pelvic inflammatory disease, adhesions inflammation from previous pelvic surgery, irritable bowel syndrome, diver-ticulitis, fibromyalgia, and interstitial cystitis.
Women in whom a particular disease process is suspected, such as adenomyosis, uterine leiomyomata, irritable bowel syndrome, interstitial cystitis, diverticulitis, or fibromyalgia should undergo further diagnostic testing and disease-specific treatment.
Uses For beta-lactamase-producing strains of the following organisms Hemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis causing lower respiratory tract infections, otitis media, and sinusitis Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella, causing skin and skin structure infections E. coli, Klebsiella, and Enterobacter, causing UTI. Note Mixed infections caused by organisms susceptible to ampicillin and organisms susceptible to amoxicillin potassium clavulanate should not require an additional antibiotic. Contraindications Hypersensitivity to pencillins. Clavulanate K-asso-ciated cholestatic and or liver dysfunction.
Cystitis is uncommon in young children and teenagers. Pregnancy increases the risk of infection because of hormonal changes in women and because the enlarging uterus restricts the flow of urine and creates urinary stasis and bacteria proliferation. Men, on the other hand, secrete prostatic fluid that serves as an antibacterial defense. As men age past 50, however, the prostate gland enlarges, which increases the risk for urinary retention and infection. As women age, vaginal flora and lubrication change decreased lubrication increases the risk of urethral irritation in women during intercourse. By age 70, prevalence is similar for men and women.
Cystocele is a structural problem of the genitourinary (GU) tract that occurs in women. The urinary bladder presses against a weakened anterior vaginal wall, thus causing the bladder to protrude into the vagina. The weakened vaginal wall is unable to support the weight of urine in the bladder, and this results in incomplete emptying of the bladder and cystitis. HISTORY. Patients with a cystocele often have a history of frequent and urgent urination, frequent urinary tract infections, difficulty emptying the bladder, and stress. Ask about the pattern and extent of incontinence Does incontinence occur during times of stress, such as laughing and sneezing Is it a constant, slow seepage Is the amount such that the patient needs to use a peri-pad or adult diaper
Uses Otitis media due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, Hemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and staphylococci. Upper respiratory tract infections (including pharyngitis and tonsillitis) caused by S. pyo-genes. Lower respiratory tract infections (including pneumonia) due to S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and S. pyogenes. Skin and skin structure infections due to Staphylococcus aure-us and S. pyogenes. UTIs (including pyelonephritis and cystitis) caused by Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella, and coagulase-negative staphylococci. Extended-release tablets Acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis due to non- -lac-tamase-producing strains of H. in-fluenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis (including -lactamase-producing strains), or S. pneumoniae. Secondary bacterial infections of acute bronchitis due to H. influenzae (non- -lactamase-producing strains only), M. catarrhalis (including -lactamase-producing strains), or S. pneumoniae. Pharyngitis or tonsillitis due to S....
A 12-year-old schoolgirl presents in your office with a 2-day history of fever, intense oral pain, crusting and blistering of the lower lip, and severe dysuria. She also has scattered skin lesions over the trunk and extremities. Some are target lesions. You suspect erythema multiforme major.
Contraindications Hypersensitiv-ity to cephalosporins. Special Concerns Although cefti-buten has been approved for pharyngitis or tonsillitis, only penicillin has been shown to be effective in preventing rheumatic fever. Not approved to treat urinary infections. Hypersen-sitivity to penicillins. Use with caution in patients with renal impairement, infants 6 months, and in patients with pseudomembraneous colitis. Oral suspension contains 1 g sucrose per 5 mL.
Teach the importance of adequate fluids. Explain the importance of notifying the physician at the first signs of inability to void or of urinary infection, such as burning or painful urination, cloudy urine, rusty or smoky urine, blood-tinged urine, foul odor, flank pain, or fever.
Women with acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis may present with a mild cystitis-like illness and flank pain fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, leukocytosis and abdominal pain or a serious gram-negative bacteremia. Uncomplicated pyelonephritis is usually caused by E. coli.
Symptoms of vaginitis include vaginal discharge, pruritus, irritation, soreness, odor, dyspareunia and dysuria. Dyspareunia is a common feature of atrophic vaginitis. Abdominal pain is suggestive of pelvic inflammatory disease and suprapubic pain is suggestive of cystitis.
Vulvar pruritus is the dominant feature. Women may also complain of dysuria (external rather than urethral), soreness, irritation, and dyspareunia. There is often little or no discharge that which is present is typically white and clumpy. Physical examination often reveals erythema of the vulva and vaginal mucosa. The discharge is thick, adherent, and cottage cheese-like.
In the fourth book of the Bible, it is reported that the Jews returning to Sinai had nostalgia for the eating of garlic, which they had known and appreciated in Egypt. In ancient Greece and Rome, it was claimed to have additional uses, such as repelling scorpions, treating dog bites and bladder infections, and curing leprosy and asthma. By 1000 ad garlic was grown in virtually the entire known Medieval world, and was universally recognized as a valuable plant. Many cultures elevated garlic beyond a dietary staple, and suggested that it had medicinal and even spiritual uses. Philosophers and scholars credited garlic with many virtues. Aristophanes suggested that athletes and those going into battle should eat garlic to enhance their courage. Pliny wrote about garlic's ability to cure consumption and numerous other ailments. Virgil commented that garlic enhanced and sustained the strength of farm workers. Celsius recommended garlic as a cure for fever. Hippocrates thought it was a good...
Alky-lating cytostatics are reactive compounds that transfer alkyl residues into a covalent bond with DNA. For instance, mechlorethamine (nitrogen mustard) is able to cross-link double-stranded DNA on giving off its chlorine atoms. Correct reading of genetic information is thereby rendered impossible. Other alkylat-ing agents are chlorambucil, melphalan, thio-TEPA, cyclophosphamide (p. 300, 320), ifosfamide, lomustine, and busul-fan. Specific adverse reactions include irreversible pulmonary fibrosis due to busulfan and hemorrhagic cystitis caused by the cyclophosphamide metabolite acrolein (preventable by the uroprotectant mesna). Cisplatin binds to (but does not alkylate) DNA strands. Cystostatic antibiotics insert themselves into the DNA double strand this may lead to strand breakage (e.g., with bleomycin). The anthracycline antibiotics daunorubicin and adriamycin (doxorubi-cin) may induce cardiomyopathy. Ble-omycin can also cause pulmonary fibro-sis.
Diagnosis Is Dependent Upon age-related symptoms of UTI an accurate and thorough history of UTI symptoms, patterns of voiding, health practices at home, recurrent treatment of UTI, physical growth and examination, and urine culture lab results. Urine Culture and Sensitivity the gold standard for the diagnosis of UTI, to determine the presence of bacteria in the urine and the drugs to which they are sensitive. UTI will have 100,000 colony formation units ml (CFU ml) in the first urine specimen in the morning. Evidence of a contaminated urine sample will reveal a report of fewer than 10,000 CFU ml. Low colony formation may also occur because of very dilute or acidic urine, frequent voiding, chronic infection, or antibacterial therapy.
Follow-up Management urine cultures should be repeated monthly for 3 months, every 3 months for 6 months, and annually thereafter to ensure early detection of any recurrent symptoms. The relapse rate of UTI is high in children and tends to occur within 1-2 months after termination of antibiotic therapy.
Surgery is rarely needed to remove or to break up kidney stones. However, if a stone does not pass through the ureter and blocks urine flow, or if a stone causes ongoing urinary tract infection, medical treatment will be required. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) passes shock waves through the body until they strike the stones and reduce them to the consistency of sand so they can be excreted in the urine. Lithotripsy usually is done on an outpatient basis. The procedure is performed using either intravenous sedation or epidural (spinal) anesthesia. Some lithotripsy devices require the patient to be in a water bath during the procedure, while others require that the patient lie on a soft cushion or pad. Some kidney stones do not cause symptoms. Others may cause sudden, severe pain when they move into the ureter and cause an obstruction. As the stone moves toward the bladder, you may feel a strong urge to urinate, or you may feel a burning sensation. Fever and chills in...
Called urethral stricture, is a common problem following long-term catheter placement. Urethral stricture can interfere with urination and ejaculation. It also can damage the kidneys by causing back pressure (buildup of fluid) in the urinary tract. Urethral stricture also may be a factor in the development of urinary tract infections. Symptoms of bladder cancer can be the same as those for a bladder infection or other urinary tract disorder. Therefore you should talk to your doctor as soon as possible if you experience any symptoms. The most common symptoms of bladder cancer include blood in the urine, painful urination, frequent urination (without an increase in fluid intake), and an urge to urinate with little urine output. If your doctor thinks you may have bladder cancer, he or she will examine the inside of the bladder with a viewing tube called a cystoscope (see Diagnostic
Related to (Specify urinary tract infection acute, chronic or postoperative invasive postoperative drainage tubes (i.e., Silastic stents, urethral Foley or suprapubic tube .) Defining Characteristics (Specify redness, abnormal drainage, and or swelling at incision site UTI symptoms burning on voiding, cloudy and foul-smelling urine positive urine or wound culture temperature elevation 38.5 C or higher .)
The majority of the collecting system is lined by urothelium (transitional epithelium). Variable areas of the bladder and urethra may be lined by glandular epithelium (simple columnar), especially in the trigone and the dome of the bladder (the vestigial urachus) pa-raurethral glands, which provide lubrication for the urethra, might also be a source of glandular epithelium from that area. Cystitis cystica or glandularis, arising in Brunn's nests in the bladder mucosa, may shed groups of atypical glandular cells not to be confused with those cells of an adenocarcinoma of the bladder or prostate. In addition, the prostate and accessory sex glands are lined by glandular remnants in the dome or trigone of the bladder. Urothelial cells on the surface of an hyperplasia may also appear to be columnar (Figs. 1.6, 1.7). Any atypia needs to be assessed in the context of accompanying inflammation, as from cystitis cystica glandularis or suspicion of glandular neoplasia, based on history and...
Adults 1 g day in single or two divided doses. Children 30 mg kg day in divided doses q 12 hr. UTIs. Adults 1-2 g day in single or two divided doses for uncomplicated lower UTI (e.g., cystitis). For all other UTIs, the usual dose is 2 g day in two divided doses. Children 30 mg kg day in divided doses q 12 hr. Bacterial endocarditis prophylaxis.
Medical problems during this pregnancy should be reviewed, including urinary tract infections, diabetes, or hypertension. 8. Review of systems. Severe headaches, scotomas, hand and facial edema, or epigastric pain (preeclampsia) should be sought. Dysuria, urinary frequency or flank pain may indicate cystitis or pyelonephritis.
GBS may be the cause of significant morbidity and mortality among pregnant women. In addition to urinary tract infections (UTIs), women may have chorioamnionitis, postpartum wound infection, bacteremia, or puerperal sepsis. Any pregnant mother with symptoms of a UTI should have a urine culture done, and the culture should be labeled as that of a pregnant woman. Because GBS bacteriuria is considered evidence of heavy colonization in the pregnant woman, any quantity of GBS in the urine of a pregnant woman should be reported by the laboratory to the obstetrician (19). Women who are symptomatic should be treated with standard therapy for the UTI. Whether a woman is symptomatic or asymptomatic, intrapartum antibiotics are recommended during labor for women who have bacteriuria (19). If a wound infection is suspected, cultures of the wound and blood should be obtained, and blood cultures are indicated in women with signs of bacteremia or sepsis. The diagnosis of chorioamnionitis is usually...
Biofilm, as a matter of fact, is involved in acute and chronic infectious diseases and has been described in human and experimental pathology such as native valve endocarditis, otitis media, bacterial chronic rhinosinusitis, COPD, chronic urinary infections, bacterial prostatitis, osteomyelitis, dental caries, biliary tract infections, Legionnaire's disease and amyloidosis.
Vesicoureteral reflux is defined as a retrograde (or backflow) of urine into the ureters. The diagnosis for VUR rarely occurs after 5 years of age. The etiology of VUR is categorized into two types, primary and secondary reflux. Primary reflux is caused by an inadequate valvular mechanism at the ureterovesical junction and is not associated with any obstruction or neurogenic bladder. The inadequate valve in primary reflux is caused by the shortened submucosal tunnel that shortens bladder filling. Secondary reflux occurs secondary to obstruction (50 of cases in infants are caused by posterior urethral valves) or neurogenic bladder. Important risk factors associated with VUR include age, urinary tract infection (UTI), and reflux.
Ciloxan Ophthalmic, Cipro, Cipro Cystitis Pack, Cipro I.V. (Rx) Classification Fluoroquinolone anti-infective See also Fluoroquinolones. Action Kinetics Effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Rapidly and well absorbed following PO administration. Food delays absorption of the drug. Maximum serum levels 2 4 mcg mL 1 2 hr after dosing. tV2 4 hr for PO use and 5 6 hr for IV use. Avoid peak serum levels above 5 mcg mL. About 40 -50 of a PO dose and 50 -70 of an IV dose is excreted unchanged in the urine. Uses Systemic. UTIs caused by Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter diversus, Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Providencia rett-geri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Morganella morganii, Serratia marces-cens, Serratia epidermidis, and Streptococcus faecalis. Uncomplicated cervical and urethral gonorrhea due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Chancroid due to Haemophilus ducreyi un-
There is evidence to suggest that prostatitis may be pathologically linked to interstitial cystitis in men as both of these conditions share common symptoms. In a survey of 92 men with interstitial cystitis confirmed by the National Institute for Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases criteria, the most commonly reported initial symptoms were mild suprapubic discomfort (33 ), nocturia (15 ), urgency (15 ), dysuria (11 ), and frequency (11 ) however, after 2.5 years these symptoms had become more severe and 89 reported dysuria, 85 had urinary frequency, 82 had severe suprapubic discomfort and or urgency, and 56 had sexual dysfunction.67 The overlap between prostatitis and interstitial cystitis has led researchers to consider that they have underlying causes. In a recent study of 50 patients with prostatitis, the majority of patients were also symptomatic on an interstitial cystitis questionnaire known as the pelvic pain and urgency frequency questionnaire, and 77 with a score more...
Cystitis occurs in 0.3 to 1.3 percent of pregnant A. Acute cystitis should be considered in any gravida with frequency, urgency, dysuria, hematuria, or suprapubic pain in the absence of fever and flank pain. Urine culture with a CFU count 102 mL should be considered positive on a midstream urine specimen with pyuria.
Otitis media research also has the potential to confuse and confound as much as it contributes to our knowledge. There are three main reasons for this. First, clinical research has to deal with so many coexistent factors (e.g., season, age, child care, upper respiratory tract infections UTI ) that significance tends to be diluted, unless very large numbers are involved. Second, much research deals with surrogate outcomes (effusion resolution for example), while long-term true outcomes (e.g., IQ, employment status) are much harder to come by. Meta-analy-sis is particularly amiss when it comes to grouping subtly disparate studies. Finally, we are overwhelmed by definitions, and what seems very obvious is not always so. For example, Hay-den10 illustrated this nicely when he surveyed 165 pediatricians, who had 147 different definitions for acute otitis media.
Reproductive System DRG Category 336 Mean LOS 40 days Description Surgical Transurethral Prostatectomy with CC
Prostatitis, an inflammation of the prostate gland, is classified in four categories. Acute bacterial prostatitis is an acute, usually gram-negative, bacterial infection of the prostate gland, generally in conjunction with acute bacterial cystitis. Chronic bacterial prostatitis is a subclinical chronic infection of the prostate by bacteria that can be localized in prostatic secretions and is the most common recurrent urinary tract infection in men. Nonbacterial prostatitis is a chronic prostatitis for which there is no identifiable organism. Prostatodynia is a condition in which the patient experiences irritation and pelvic pain on voiding the symptoms suggest an acute inflammatory process, but there is no evidence of inflammatory cells in the prostatic secretions. The most common complication of prostatitis is a urinary tract infection. If it is left untreated, a urinary tract infection can progress to prostatic edema, urinary retention, pyelonephritis, epi-didymitis, and prostatic...
Ernie Ball is a computer systems analyst. When he was 38, he visited his doctor because he had pain in his flanks. A urine test showed protein plus red cells, and his doctor told him that he had a urinary tract infection and urethral stricture. Leg swelling appeared soon thereafter. He had taken analgesics (aspirin or Anacin plus Dristan) daily for years because of headaches. By age 40, he had high blood pressure and signs of moderately severe kidney failure. At age 56, by which time his serum creatinine concentration was 6.4 mg per dl, indicating severe kidney failure, he started a supplemented very-low-protein diet. He succeeded in deferring dialysis for four more years by means of a very-low-protein, low-salt diet plus either amino acids or ketoacids, antihypertensive drugs, diuretics, calcium, zinc, iron, vitamins, and sodium polystyrene sulfonate.
Hematologic Agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia. Allergic Fever, sore throat, respiratory distress, rash, pharyngitis, laryngospasm, anaphylaxis. Skin Fever, pruritus, rash. Ophthalmic Dry eyes. GU Decreased libido, impotence, urinary tract infection. Other Hypoglycemia. Respiratory Bron-chospasm, dyspnea, wheezing. Additional Side Effects Psoriasislike eruptions, skin necrosis, SLE (rare).
People with recurrent UTIs should undergo a medical evaluation because it is important to determine the underlying cause. A CAM approach may be reasonable in some situations and should be discussed with a physician. Cranberry juice may be effective for preventing UTIs and is of low risk. Its effectiveness relative to the conventional approach with prescription antibiotics has not been investigated. Conventional treatment with antibiotics should be used to treat UTIs, because the effectiveness of CAM approaches for treating UTIs, including cranberry juice, is not established. Also, people with MS and UTIs should attempt to eliminate the infection as quickly as possible, because the infection may worsen neurological symptoms.
Primary genital episode genital HSV is characterized by multiple painful vesicles in clusters. They may be associated with pruritus, dysuria, vaginal discharge, and tender regional adenopathy. Fever, malaise, and myalgia often occur one to two days prior to the appearance of lesions. The lesions may last four to five days prior to crusting. The skin will reepithelialize in about 10 days. Viral shedding may last for 10 to 12 days after reepithelialization.
Any pregnant woman with a vaginal discharge or inflamed vulvovaginal area should be evaluated for Candida. Candida vulvovaginitis is the second most common cause of vaginitis after bacterial vaginosis. Many women are asymptomatic, but the classic signs are a profuse, pruritic, thick, white, curdlike discharge associated with dysuria, dys-pareunia, and pruritus ani. The diagnosis of Candida vulvovaginitis is a clinical diagnosis that is confirmed by culture and microscopic detection of the yeast. A drop of the cervicovaginal fluid should be immersed in a 10 potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparation on a glass slide with a coverslip for microscopic examination. Sometimes, this
MEDICAL Kidney and Urinary Tract Infections, Age 17 with CC U rinary tract infections (UTIs) are common and usually occur because of the entry of bacteria into the urinary tract at the urethra. Approximately 20 to 25 of women have a UTI sometime during their lifetime, and acute UTIs account for approximately 7 million healthcare visits per year for young women. About 20 of women who develop a UTI experience recurrences. Women are more prone to UTIs than men because of natural anatomic variations. The female urethra is only about 1 to 2 inches in length, whereas the male urethra is 7 to 8 inches long. The female urethra is also closer to the anus than is the male urethra, increasing women's risk for fecal contamination. The motion during sexual intercourse also increases the female's risk for infection. Urinary reflux is one reason that bacteria spread in the urinary tract. Vesicourethral reflux occurs when pressure increases in the bladder from coughing or sneezing and pushes urine...
When bacteria overcome the cutaneous or mucosal barriers and penetrate body tissues, a bacterial infection is present. Frequently the body succeeds in removing the invaders, without outward signs of disease, by mounting an immune response. If bacteria multiply faster than the body's defenses can destroy them, infectious disease develops with inflammatory signs, e.g., purulent wound infection or urinary tract infection. Appropriate treatment employs substances that injure bacteria and thereby prevent their further multiplication, without harming cells of the host organism (1).
Figure 10 The AUA diagnostic and treatment algorithm for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) *In patients with clinically significant prostatic bleeding wpatients with at least a 10-year life expectancy for whom knowledge of the presence of prostate cancer would change management or patients for whom the PSA measurement may change the management of voiding symptoms DRE, digital rectal examination IPSS, International Prostate Symptom Score PE, physical examination PSA, prostate-specific antigen PVR, postvoid residue UTI, urinary tract infection. (Reproduced with kind permission from AUA Practice Guidelines Committee. J. Urol. 2003, 170, 530-547.) Figure 10 The AUA diagnostic and treatment algorithm for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) *In patients with clinically significant prostatic bleeding wpatients with at least a 10-year life expectancy for whom knowledge of the presence of prostate cancer would change management or patients for whom the PSA measurement may change the management...
Decreasing the risk of exposure to UTI it may also help prevent recurrence of UTI this measure will aid in flushing out bacteria. (What did clients verbalize about the signs and symptoms and treatment of UTIs Use quotes.) (Revisions to care plan D C care plan Continue care plan )
Diabetic ketoacidosis, with or without coma. Type 1 diabetes. Special Concerns Use with caution in impaired hepatic function. Safety and efficacy have not been determined in children. Side Effects CV Chest pain, angina, ischemia. GI Nausea, diarrhea, constipation, vomiting, dyspepsia. Respiratory URI, sinusitis, rhinitis, bronchitis. Musculoskeletal Arthralgia, back pain. Miscellaneous Hypoglyce-mia, headache, paresthesia, chest pain, urinary tract infection, tooth disorder, allergy.
Despite its presence in 25 of all pregnant women, isolation of Candida from the placenta is rare (12,13). Baley reported an incidence of less than 1 (14). In the presence of chorioamnionitis, fetal infection can occur and presents as congenital cutaneous candidiasis (CCC). Risk factors for congenital infection include early preterm birth, the presence of a foreign body such as an intrauterine device or cervical sutures, and possibly diagnostic amniocentesis (6,12). Factors that do not appear to play a role in congenital candidiasis are maternal age, prolonged rupture of membranes, diabetes, urinary tract infection, parity, and antibiotic, tocolytic, or corticosteroid therapy (15). The role of congenital candidiasis in precipitating preterm labor or premature rupture of membranes remains unknown and warrants further investigation (16,17).
Invasion cannot be reliably predicted since blood and inflammatory debris may be seen with benign cystitis as well as invasive carcinoma (Figs. 3.40, 3.41). Both in situ and invasive urothelial carcinoma have essentially identical cytologic criteria. Rarely, spindle cells reminiscent of the fiber cells of invasive squamous carcinoma of the cervix will be noted, but this feature is infrequent enough to be of no practical use (Figs. 3.42, 3.43). Biopsy is necessary to determine involvement of detrusor muscle invasion that cannot be predicted by any cytomorphologic criteria.
Complete ureteropelvic duplication on the left with obstructive upper-pole ureterocele. Urinary tract infection in the upper pole collecting system in a 21-day-old male. a Longitudinal, b transverse pelvic scan. The dilated upper pole ureter (U) and the ectopic ureterocele (C) are full of debris (purulent exudate), B, bladder. (Reprinted with permission from 2 ) Fig. 1. Complete ureteropelvic duplication on the left with obstructive upper-pole ureterocele. Urinary tract infection in the upper pole collecting system in a 21-day-old male. a Longitudinal, b transverse pelvic scan. The dilated upper pole ureter (U) and the ectopic ureterocele (C) are full of debris (purulent exudate), B, bladder. (Reprinted with permission from 2 )
Hemolytic anemia, thyrotoxicosis, interstitial cystitis, and Sjogren's syndrome, and that this association resulted in a 45 increase in risk for schizophrenia. The antipsychotics used to treat schizophrenia can be divided into two distinct classes, typical and atypical. The distinction between the two can be based on their time of introduction to market, typicals preceding atypicals their receptor-binding profile, the atypicals antagonizing both D2 and 5HT2 receptors with additional binding to D3 and D4 receptors but most importantly, the ability, albeit limited, of the atypical neuroleptics to address the negative symptoms of schizophrenia together with a lower risk of developing the tardive dyskinesia associated with the older, typical antipsychotic agents. A more controversial distinction is that typical antipsychotics are neurotoxic while atypical agents are metabolic poisons.9
Ness, drowsiness, fatigue, hallucinations, insomnia, lethargy, mental changes, memory loss, strange dreams. GI Diarrhea, ischemic colitis, nausea, mesenteric arterial thrombosis, vomiting. Hematologic Agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia. Allergic Fever, sore throat, respiratory distress, rash, pharyngitis, laryngos-pasm, anaphylaxis. Skin Pruritus, rash, increased skin pigmentation, sweating, dry skin, alopecia, skin irritation, psoriasis. Ophthalmic Dry, burning eyes. GU Dysuria, impotence, nocturia. Other Hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. Respiratory Bronchospasm, dyspnea, wheezing. Drug Interactions See also Drug Interactions for Beta-Adrenergic Blocking Agents and Antihypertensive Agents.
In patients less than 5 years old, UTI is a cause for concern because it may be the presenting symptom of a genitourinary malformation. The most common examples are vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and posterior urethral valves. Get an ultrasound and a voiding cystourethrogram to evaluate any male under 6 with a UTI and any female under 6 with recurrent U'Tls or pyelonephritis. 2. Some women get recurrent UTIs related to sex and can be given antibiotics to take afterwards. 3. Conditions that promote urinary stasis (BPH, pregnancy, stones, neurogenic bladder, VUR) or bacterial colonization (indwelling catheter, fecal incontinence, surgical instrumentation) predispose to UTI. They also predispose to ascending UTI (pyelonephritis) and bacteremia sepsis. Pyelonephritis almost always from an ascending UTI and due to E. coli ( 80 of cases). Patients present with high fever, shaking chills, costovertebral angle tenderness flank pain, and or UTI symptoms. Urinalysis and urine and blood cultures...
Uses Uncomplicated UTIs caused by E. coli and P. mirabilis. Otitis media due to H. influenzae (beta-lacta-mase positive and negative strains), Moraxella catarrhalis, and S. pyogenes. Pharyngitis and tonsillitis caused by S. pyogenes. Acute bronchitis and acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis caused by S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae (beta-lactamase positive and negative strains). Uncomplicated cervical or urethral gonorrhea due to N. gonorrhoeae (both penicillinase- and non-penicillinase-producing strains). Contraindications See also Ce-phalosporins.
Several types of inflammation problems may involve the penis and the urethra. Balanitis occurs when the glans, or head, of the penis becomes red and sore. Usually the cause is unknown, but it is sometimes caused by urinary tract infection or allergic reactions to clothing or detergents. In uncircumcised men, the irritation may result when the foreskin is narrow or difficult to retract, and secretions become trapped beneath the foreskin.
Anticoagulants may be indicated in patients with atrial fibrillation without rheumatic valvular heart disease, depending on their individual risk profile (TIAs, age, comorbidities). Acute treatment is based on the existence of a 3-6-hour interval between the onset of ischemia and the occurrence of maximum irreversible tissue damage (treatment window). General treatment measures include the assurance of adequate cardiorespiratory status (normal blood oxygenation is essential for the survival of the ischemic penumbra) because autoregulation of CBF in the penumbra is impaired, the systolic BP should be maintained above 160 mmHg. The serum glucose level should not be allowed to exceed 200 mg 100 ml. Balanced fluid replacement should be provided, and fever, if it occurs, should be treated. Physicians should be vigilant in the recognition and treatment of complications such as aspiration (secondary to dysphagia), deep venous thrombosis (secondary to immobility of a plegic limb),...
Patients present late, because early prostate cancer is asymptomatic. Look, for symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hypertrophy (hesitancy, dysuria, frequency) with hematuria and or elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or acid phosphatase. Acid phosphatase is elevated only when the cancer has broken through the capsule for this reason, it was replaced with the more sensitive PSA as a screening tool. Look for prostate irregularities (nodule) on rectal exam. Patients also commonly present with back pain from vertebral metastases (osteoblastic).
Trichomoniasis in women ranges from an asymptomatic state to a severe, acute, inflammatory disease. Signs and symptoms include a purulent, malodorous, thin discharge (70 ) with associated burning, pruritus, dysuria, and dyspareunia. Physical examination reveals erythema of the vulva and vaginal mucosa the classic green-yellow frothy discharge is observed in 10-30 . Punctate hemorrhages may be visible on the vagina and cervix in 2 .
V Client verbalizes signs and symptoms of UTI and expected treatment regimen. Assess parents' knowledge of age-related signs and symptoms of UTI, associated anatomy effects related to UTI (girls vs. boys) assess history and past treatments for UTI, compliance of previous UTI management. Teach parents about causes of the infection and predisposing factors to be alert to dysuria, frequency, urgency, fever, foul odor to urine, cloudiness of urine, enuresis in the toilet trained child or flank pain, chills and fever, abdominal distention and to report the presence of these signs and symptoms to physician. Provides information needed to develop plan of instruction to ensure compliance of medical regimen UTI commonly occur in females and are prone to recurrent episodes vesicoureteral reflux predisposes to UTI. Provides information that indicates lower or upper urinary tract infection. procedures to diagnosis anatomic abnormalities that may be the source of UTI.
All sexually active women presenting with lower abdominal pain should be carefully evaluated for the presence of salpingitis and or endometritis-pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). In addition, routine bimanual and abdominal examinations should be carried out on all women with a presumptive STI, since some women with PID or endometritis will not complain of lower abdominal pain. Women with endometritis may present with complaints of vaginal discharge and or bleeding and or uterine tenderness on pelvic examination. Symptoms suggestive of PID include abdominal pain, dyspareunia, vaginal discharge, menometrorrhagia, dysuria, pain associated with menses, fever, and sometimes nausea and vomiting.
The development of 12 would have been severely hampered in the current paradigm of drug discovery in that only compounds that are highly active (cytotoxic, antiproliferative, induce apoptosis, etc.) versus transformed cell lines in vitro are further progressed to in vivo xenograft murine models of cancer. Cyclophosphamide is only weakly cytotoxic versus transformed cells in vitro. Nevertheless, administration of 12 in vivo to either animals, or subjects with sensitive tumors, provides dramatic antineoplastic effects. The initial rationalization for the in vivo activity of 12 was based on phosphatase or phosphoamidase cleavage of the P-N bond, which would release the mustard group. This hypothesis has been subsequently proven incorrect (for a summary of the development of oxazaphosphorine-based agents see 23). The accepted mechanism for cyclophosphamide's impressive in vivo activity is shown in Figure 6. Upon administration of 12, metabolic activation occurs via the cytochrome P450...
CPPS is the most common form affecting up to 14 of men, and approximately 50 will have this condition at some time in their life. CPPS is typically characterized by chronic discomfort or pain, which can occur in the lower back, tip of the penis, suprapubic area, and perineal area. Urinary symptoms include urinary frequency, dysuria, weak stream, incomplete emptying, and painful ejaculation inflammation can also be present.67
Escherichia coli is responsible for 60 to 90 percent of cases of asymptomatic bacteriuria, cystitis, and pyelonephritis. C. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria refers to the isolation of 100,000 CFU of a single organism mL from a midstream-voided specimen in a woman without UTI symptoms. It occurs in 5 to 9 percent of pregnancies, usually developing in the first month of gestation.
Vitamin C supplements are sometimes recommended for preventing or treating urinary tract infections (UTIs), which occur frequently in some women with MS. This recommendation is based on the idea that vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, makes the urine acidic and thus inhospitable for bacteria. However, there is no definitive evidence that the use of vitamin C supplements produces acidic urine or decreases the chance of developing a UTI. More evidence exists for cranberry juice (see the chapter on Herbs ) than for vitamin C in preventing UTIs. If an actual infection is present, prescription antibiotics should definitely be used, because people with MS may have serious complications from UTIs.
Herpes genitalis is generally caused by HSV-2, and is usually acquired during sexual activity. Primary infection may take the form of a severe vulvovaginitis in female patients. Infrequently male patients may develop a diffuse balanitis. Infection may occur as a primary inoculation lesion in either sex. Men have a lower incidence of symptomatic primary infection and recurrent lesions than women. Genital pain, papules, pustules, crusts, ulcers, or fissures with regional adenopathy may be signs of a primary episode. In male patients, bacteriologically negative cases of nonspecific urethritis have cultured both types of HSV. Other uncommon signs of a primary episode include dysuria, symptoms of cystitis, lumbosacral radicular pain, and aseptic meningitis. It is now established that a significant proportion of genital herpes infections are acquired from a partner without visible clinical lesions. Transmission among serologically discordant couples occurs 70 of the time during periods of...
Vitamin C is sometimes recommended for preventing and treating UTIs. However, studies do not indicate that vitamin C is effective, and it carries a theoretical risk in MS because of its immune-stimulating activity. Bearberry, or uva ursi, is also sometimes recommended for UTIs. The effectiveness and safety of this herb have not been established. In some studies, marijuana has
Suppresion of the normal flora of the body, which in turn keeps certain pathogenic microorganisms, such as Candida albicans, Proteus, or Pseudomonas, from causing infections. If the flora is altered, superinfections (monilial vaginitis, enteritis, UTIs), which necessitate the discontinuation of therapy or the use of other antibiotics, can result.
Antibiotics Two main classes (1) the true anthracyclines daunorubicin, doxorubicin, and (2) the mycins adriamycin, bleomycin, mithramycin, mitomycin. Most antineoplastic antibiotics are derived from the Streptomyces bacterium and release oxygen (O-) free radicals (similar to paraquat), causing severe cardiotox-icity, parenchymal pulmonary toxicity, mucosi-tis, and myelosuppression. Alkylating agents Two main classes (1) nitrogen mustards, like cyclophosphamide and chlor-ambucil, can cause hemorrhagic cystitis and myelosuppression on overdose and (2) heavy metal platinoids, like cisplatin and carboplatin, can cause seizures, encephalopathy, retinal tox-icity, ototoxicity, and peripheral neuropathy on overdose. Hemorrhagic cystitis,
Most, common sexually transmitted disease dysuria, positive, culture Menopause the average age at menopause is around 50. Patients have irregular cycles or amenorrhea, hot flashes, mood swings, and an elevated FSH level. (See pharmacology chapter.) A bone density test may show osteoporosis and help the patient to make a decision about whether to take hormone replacement therapy. Patients also may complain of dysuria, dyspareuiria,
Action Kinetics Cefuroxime axetil is used PO, whereas cefuroxime sodium is used either IM or IV. Uses PO (axetil). Pharyngitis, tonsillitis, otitis media, sinusitis, acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and secondary bacterial infections of acute bronchitis, uncomplicated UTIs, uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections, uncomplicated gonorrhea (urethral and endocervical) caused by non-penicillinase-producing strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Early Lyme disease due to Borrelia burgdorferi. The suspension is indicated for children from 3 months to 12 years to treat pharyngitis, tonsillitis, acute bacterial otitis media, and impetigo. Contraindications Hypersensitivity to cephalosporins. Use in infants 1 month. Uncomplicated UTIs. Adults and children over 13 years 125 or 250 mg q 12 hr for 7-10 days. Infants and children less than 12 years 125 mg b.i.d.