Deep Brain Stimulation
Alcohol affects every organ in your body, even in moderate amounts, but overconsumption takes its most serious toll on the liver, heart, and brain. When you drink alcohol, some of the alcohol is absorbed in your stomach, but most enters the small intestine, where it passes into the bloodstream, which carries it throughout your body. As alcohol enters your brain, it numbs nerve cells, slowing down their ability to send messages to your body. If you continue to drink, the nerve centers in the brain may lose control over speech, vision, balance, and judgment, and you may have a blackout.
Another example of successful clinical application of neural stimulation is the deep brain stimulator (DBS). This device is currently being evaluated for the treatment of Parkinsonian tremor.42 Seizures in the tha-lamic region of the brain are believed to cause some types of tremor that can render the afflicted individual unable to control movements. By electrically stimulating the thalamus, it is hypothesized that the seizures are moderated or depressed, allowing other areas of the brain to function properly to allow voluntary motor control. While the exact mechanism of Both the cochlear implant and deep brain stimulator demonstrate what should be a guiding principle for neural prosthetic devices. The purpose of the device is not to closely replicate the tissue it is replacing rather, the purpose of the device is to replicate the lost function, regardless of how this is accomplished. We do not know how to build a cochlea, a thalamus, or a retina, but we do have some knowledge of how...
Your brain releases antidiuretic hormone. These two responses result in increased intake of fluids and decreased excretion of urine, which together cause an increase in the amount of water in the body and a return to the normal level in the concentration of dissolved solids.
Blood pressure varies throughout the day. When you sleep, blood pressure falls your tissues need less oxygen and nutrients. When you exercise, the opposite happens. Your muscles need more oxygen and energy to perform work, and your blood pressure rises, increasing blood flow to the tissues that need it most. Even standing up affects blood pressure To get more blood up to your brain, blood pressure rises.
Your brain is the most complex and least understood organ in your body. It interprets information gathered through the senses, initiates all body movement, stores information for later use, and controls thought and behavior. The cerebellum helps maintain posture and balance and the coordination of movements. The brain stem controls vital functions such as breathing. The uppermost part of the brain stem, known as the midbrain, controls some reflex actions and is involved in voluntary eye movements. Your spinal cord, a complex bundle of nerves, carries messages between your brain and your body. Your brain and spinal cord together make up the central nervous system. Nerves that branch off from your spinal cord form the peripheral nervous system. Eight sets of nerves branch off from the cervical spine (neck), 12 sets from the thoracic spine (chest), five sets from the lumbar spine (lower back), and six sets from the sacrum (base of the backbone and tailbone). These nerves transmit...
Electrical stimulation of neuron clusters deep inside the brain also known as deep brain stimulation (DBS) is now used to inactivate the subthalamic nucleus, which is overactive in Parkinson's disease. A multielectrode lead is implanted into the ventrointermediate nucleus of the thalamus. The lead is connected to a pulse generator that is surgically implanted under the skin in the upper chest. When the patient passes a magnet over the pulse generator, the device delivers high-frequency pulse trains to the subthalamic nucleus to block the tremor.
In regard to the retrieval of information, if I asked you whether the distance between New York City and Chicago was greater or less than the distance between Saint Louis and Los Angeles, to answer this question, you might generate in your mind's eye a map of the United States and estimate the relative distances between these cities. Thus, although the information about the relative distance between cities was stored in your brain, the knowledge was implicit and became explicit only after you imaged the map and compared the distance between these cities in your mental image.
Your bladder is a hollow, muscular organ shaped like a balloon that stores up to a pint of urine. Circular muscles called sphincters close tightly around the meeting point of the bladder and the urethra, the tube that allows urine to pass outside the body. As the bladder fills with urine, nerves in the bladder signal your brain that you need to urinate. The sensation to urinate becomes stronger as the bladder becomes fuller. When you decide to urinate, your brain tells the bladder muscles to tighten, squeezing urine out, and the sphincter muscles to relax, allowing urine to flow through the urethra.
Crank the power up until the resistor bursts into flames. This is exactly what will happen to skin if electrode contact is poor. As such, when placing electrodes for IFC, it is imperative that they are not touching and will not touch each other, since burns on the edges of the electrodes as well as on the skin will occur if electrodes are touching during stimulation. Even though the electrodes may appear to be far enough apart, remember that when a muscle comes into contraction, it can bring the electrodes together. In addition, if you use carbon-loaded silicone electrodes, always remember to apply and maintain a sufficient amount of an appropriate conductive medium, such as water-soaked sponges or especially formulated electrotherapy gel to prevent burns during stimulation. Finally, never even consider passing IFC currents through the brain. Remember the this is your brain on drugs advertising Well, misapplication of IFC takes the fried-egg analogy one notch up on the...
Professor Berry is a member of the Scientific Committee of the International Spinal Research Trust, Scientific Advisory Panel of the Brain Research Trust, Chairman of the Neuroscience Centre at UMDS in London, Editorial Board of the Journal of Neurocytology, and the Core Advisory Group for the Royal College of Surgeons.
Have you ever been envious of people who seem to have no end of clever ideas, who are able to think quickly in any situation, or who seem to have flawless memories? Could it be that they're just born smarter or quicker than the rest of us? Or are there some secrets that they might know that we don't?