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Keratoconjunctivitis sicca KCS is a deficiency of the precorneal tear film PTF and is a common and important disease in dogs.61-63 A progressive increase in the number of cases recorded in veterinary schools from 0.04 in 1964 to more than 1.5 in 1988 has been reported.64 The deficiency of the PTF produces pain and discomfort accompanied by blepharospasm and enophthalmos. As the KCS becomes chronic, a mucopurulent conjunctivitis occurs and may be associated with corneal ulceration, corneal...

Need for postruminal drug delivery systems and rumenstable products

Ruminant animals, such as cattle, sheep and goats, are major sources of meat, milk, wool and leather and are important contributors to the agricultural economy. Ruminants play a particularly important role in food production because they utilize cellulose and non-protein nitrogen which are abundant in nature straws, grasses, etc. and which are either indigestible or are poorly utilized by other domestic animals and humans. Their ability to digest fiber is a function of their digestive...

Summary

Development of controlled release pharmaceuticals for veterinary use is a complex process involving scientists spanning several disciplines. These scientists attempt to reach a balance among the pharmacological profile of the chemical entity, its immutable physicochemical characteristics, the delivery characteristics of the molecule which can be modified through biopharmaceutical approaches, and the biological ADME variability among various target species. A single strategy for developing...