Ocular pathologies in animals and available drugs4244

III.A. Inflammation

Ocular inflammation is one of the most common eye disorders in animals.45 The precise observation and interpretation of signs provides the basis for diagnosing the disease and its associated disorders, and for establishing their etiology (trauma, lid or lacrimal abnormalities, viral or bacterial infection, immune-related phenomena, corneal ulceration). Topical steroidal therapy in combination with non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, immunosuppressive agents such cyclosporine and azathiopr-ine, antimicrobial agents, mydriatic-cycloplegic agents (atropine) and additional specific therapies are frequently prescribed to treat conjunctivitis, keratitis and uveitis (Table l).46,47 Topically applied steroids are in most cases used in combination with an antimicrobial agent. The reason is probably that the concomitant administration of steroid can increase the efficacy of antibiotics.48 In addition, this association prevents a secondary infection that may occur after a corticosteroid treatment. Viral and fungal infections are generally treated with drugs that were developed for human use. Systemically or subconjunctival^ administered corticosteroids are used to treat severe blepharitis, sleritis/episcleritis, uveitis, chorioretinitis, optic neuritis and orbital inflammatory diseases. Topical glucocorticoids are contraindicated in case of corneal ulceration because they delay corneal healing. Adult cat eyes develop a steroid-induced ocular hypertension which is reversible. Unilateral twice or thrice daily topical application of 10 |xl of dexamethasone sodium phosphate 1% caused a gradual intraocular pressure increase which became significant after 2-3 weeks.49 Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, including flurbiprofen, suprofen, ketorolac, diclofenac, indomethacin are also administered to animals which are about to undergo intraocular surgery to prevent prostaglandin (PG) synthesis.50"53 New anti-inflammatory agents such as platelet-activating factor antagonist and leukotriene inhibitors are being developed for ophthalmic use.54-57

Table 1

Veterinary-labeled topical preparations available in United States, Australia, United Kingdom and France58"60

Table 1

Veterinary-labeled topical preparations available in United States, Australia, United Kingdom and France58"60

Active ingredients

Trade name (®)

Excipient

Dosage3

Species

Chloramphenicol

Chloromycetin Redidrops

Aqueous

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