Clinical manifestation

Frostnip: mildest and completely reversible form of cold injury; blanching and numbness of the exposed area Superficial frostbite: early signs and symptoms: sticking or pricking sensation, followed by development of pale, waxy skin; involved area becomes anesthetic; deeper tissues remain soft

Deep frostbite: same signs and symptoms as superficial variant, but deep tissues become hard and solid, and mottled bluish-gray discoloration develops; after warming, skin turns erythematous, edematous, with throbbing pain; within 6 hours, bullae appear, sometimes filled with clear fluid or with blood; wet or dry gangrene sometimes occurs after severe tissue injury

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