Dilatation of normal veins under the influence of increased venous pressure, most often resulting from venous insufficiency due to valve incompetence in the deep or superficial veins; increased venous pressure from outflow obstruction, either from intravascular thrombosis or from extrinsic compression; changes during pregnancy

Variegate porphyria 601

most often caused by hormonal changes rendering vein wall and the valves more pliable; genetic component to primary valvular failure susceptibility

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