Guilt Free Desserts

Guilt Free Deserts

This product will teach you the ways that you can eat whatever sweets and deserts you like without gaining fat at all. It will be a complete guide with over 50 recipes that will combine all the foods that you love and delicious foods you never tried before. In addition to that, the power of this guide is that you will lose fat while you are on this diet. This is because you will be using foods that have a super-powerful metabolic effect on your body. The creator of the product is an absolute expert of the subject of eating the foods you like for fat loss, so she knows exactly how you can implement the techniques in the books for the best chances of gaining pure quality lean muscle and losing weight with simple and easy tricks that will get you ahead. What's more is that you will learn about the foods that cause weight gain, and the foods that trick your body into losing fat. All of these foods can be found anywhere and it won't cost you a lot of money or effort to make these delicious baked goods. With these simple and easy tricks that don't need any prior experience, you will look the best without giving up your favorite foods. More here...

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Chocolate Recipes For A Happy Heart And Soul

Chocolate doesn't just taste amazing, it is great for your whole body, and this eBook shows you how eating plenty of chocolate can help you live longer. This book contains a large variety of recipes to help you get the most out of your chocolate. Chocolate reduces the risk of heart disease, promotes good blood flow, and helps with alertness. You will also learn how chocolate helps to lessen pain and anxiety, and how it has powerful antioxidant properties. You don't have to always eat foods in very small amounts that taste amazing. Chocolate is the best guilt-free indulgence food that is possibly. This book was penned in 1896 by Fannie Farmer, and contains time-tested and proven recipes that are great for your health and even better: they taste amazing. This book has recipes for everything from cakes to bonbons to truffles, and all of them work together to improve your health and well-being. More here...

Chocolate Recipes For A Happy Heart And Soul Summary

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Cacao Cocoa Chocolate Theobroma cacao Sterculiaceae

Cacao Ssp Sphaerocarpum

The earliest evidence of chocolate consumption is based on cacao residue in Mayan drinking vessels dated at about 480 ad. However, scientists believe the pulp was eaten fresh or blended into a beverage well before the roasting process was developed. Carved words and pictures on special pots uncovered in archeological sites suggest that they were used to produce chocolate products for the Mayan nobility. The Aztecs consumed a cold beverage made by combining corn, cacao seeds, water, chilies, and other spices. It was believed to be an aphrodisiac. Spanish colonists in Central and South America eventually refined this bitter beverage by leaving out the chilies, adding sugar, anise, and cinnamon, heating it to improve the texture, and serving it warm. As the demand for chocolate products increased after European colonization, the chocolate tree was cultivated on large plantations. In Europe, only wealthy people were able to enjoy the early chocolate products because the cacao seeds had to...

Starch Dessert

Frozen desserts contg. rice and or oat starch as fat substitute giving good texture, smoothness and mouth-feel, reducing fat content to below 2 . Frozen desserts comprise 1-4 wt. rice starch and or oat starch. Rice starch has particle dia. less than 10 microns. The starch content is about 2 and fat less than 10 (not over 2). Desserts comprise 1-4 starch, 0-10 edible fat, 5-40 non fat solids, 0-40 flavouring, 25-80 water and an effective amount of a sweetener, esp. 1-4 flavouring, 25-80 water and an effective amount of a sweetener, esp. 1-4 starch, 0-10 butterfat, 8-14 non-fat milk solids, 10-30 sweetener solids, 0-40 flavouring and 25-80 water. The butterfat is esp. not over 2 , milk solids 11-13 , sweetener 1823 and starch 2 . Compsns. also contain 0.3 stabiliser solids. Desserts comprise 1-4 starch, 0-10 (0-2 ) butterfat, 10-14 (11-13 ) non-fat milk solids. 10-17 (12-15 ) cane sugar solids, 5-10 (6-9 ) corn sugar syrup solids, 0.1-0.5 (0.3) stabiliser solids, 0-40 flavourings and...

Dietary Guidance For Carbohydrates

About half of the total digestible carbohydrate intake is made up of monosaccharides and disaccharides. These are found naturally in fruits and milk and also enter the diet as sugars in soft drinks, candies, jams, and sweet desserts mainly composed of sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup. Complex carbohydrates, which constitute the other half of digestible carbohydrate intake, are starches found predominantly in cereal grains, potatoes, legumes, and a few other vegetables. In 1985 sugars and starches provided an average of 45.3 of the energy in the diet of adult men in the United States. This is less than the levels recommended for overall carbohydrate consumption and disproportionately high in simple sugars.

Borage Borago officinalis Boraginaceae

In the culinary traditions of some Mediterranean areas, aerial parts of borage are the main ingredient of boiled mixtures of greens, generally used in soups (as in the Prebuggiun or wild greens of Genoa, in northwest Italy), or sometimes fried in olive oil and garlic (erbucci). The cultural use of borage in consumption of wild greens seems to mirror the spread of olive tree cultivation along many coastal areas, as has been modeled in areas bordering northwestern Tuscany and Liguria (central northern Italy). In central Europe, borage is often cultivated in gardens and the young leaves are used in mixed salads to add their distinctive cucumber taste. It is also quite common for the blue flowers to be used as a decoration for salads and desserts.

Discharge And Home Healthcare Guidelines

Allergic purpura occurs in response to agents such as bacteria, drugs, food, or bee stings. The allergic reaction, probably an autoimmune response directed against the vessel walls, may be triggered by a bacterial infection. Most patients have experienced an upper respiratory infection, particularly a streptococcal infection, 1 to 3 weeks prior to the development of allergic purpura. Experts suggest that other causes, such as allergic reactions to drugs and vaccines, insect bites, and foods (wheat, eggs, chocolate, milk) may lead to the condition.

Food Allergies and Intolerances

Some people are sensitive to certain foods but are not actually allergic to them because the food does not trigger an allergic reaction. Food preservatives called sulfites and flavor enhancers such as monosodium glutamate (MSG) can produce headaches and other symptoms. Some people get migraine headaches after consuming red wine, cheese, or chocolate. Talk to your doctor about any symptoms you may be experiencing that you think may be food-related.

Using A Dewpoint Instrument

The type (e.g., liquid, solid, powder, gel, syrup, emulsion, granule) and range of food samples (raw ingredients to final products) for water activity measurement are immense. The amount of sample required for measurement is typically 5 to 10 ml. A homogeneous and representative sample should be prepared and placed into the sample cup. For the majority of samples, no preparation is necessary the sample is simply placed into the cup. Multicomponent (e.g., muffin with raisins or pizza) and coated samples (e.g., breaded foods or chocolate-covered bar) may have to be sliced, crushed, or ground in order to obtain a representative sample. If sample preparation is necessary, then a consistent technique must be used with each sample to ensure reproducible results.

Apple Malus domestica Rosaceae

In the last several hundred years apples started to be selected and grafted throughout Europe, and were taken by colonists to North America. The story of Johnny Appleseed (based on the life of the arborist and evangelist from New England, John Chapman) shows that good European stock started to be seed propagated again, giving rise to new hybrid swarms and allowing the selection of new apple varieties unlike those in Europe. Today, the European and North American varieties are the basis for the worldwide apple business, with dessert apples, cooking apples, cider apples, and even crab apples. Apple production is estimated at 56 million tons (FAO 2002), making it the third most important fruit crop worldwide.

Food contaminants from packaging material

Average concentrations of 27 ppb have been measured in high-fat yogurt, 71 ppb in fruit yogurt, 20 to 70 ppb in other desserts, 18 to 180 ppb in meat products and 5 ppb in packed fruit and vegetable salads. For styrene, a provisional ADI of 40 ng per kg has been calculated.

Screwpine Pandanus amaryllifolius Pandanaceae

The name screwpine refers to the spirally-arranged leaves at the top of the stem characteristic of members of the Pandanaceae. These plants are native to the Asian tropics, from India through Southeast Asia to northern Australia and Oceania. Several species are used including P. tectorius whose flowers are the source of keora (or kewda) essence, used in parts of India and Sri Lanka as a flavoring. The most important species used for flavoring, though, is P. amaryllifolius. It is an ancient cultigen that has never been found in the wild, though it may originate in the Moluccas. It is cultivated in western Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, New Guinea, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, and, more recently, in Hawaii. Female flowering plants of this species are not known, therefore it is always propagated vegetatively. The leaves are used in cooking to impart flavor and color (chlorophyll) to rice, sweets, jellies, and many other food products the leaves are removed before consumption. It is widely...

The Adaptationist Program

After the failure of part-by-part optimization, interaction is acknowledged via the dictum that an organism cannot optimize each part without imposing expenses on others. The notion of ''trade-off'' is introduced, and organisms are interpreted as best compromises among competing demands. Thus interaction among parts is retained completely within the adaptationist program. Any suboptimality of a part is explained as its contribution to the best possible design for the whole. The notion that subopti-mality might represent anything other than the immediate work of natural selection is usually not entertained. As Dr. Pangloss said in explaining to Candide why he suffered from venereal disease ''It is indispensable in this best of worlds. For if Columbus, when visiting the West Indies, had not caught this disease, which poisons the source of generation, which frequently even hinders generation, and is clearly opposed to the great end of Nature, we should have neither chocolate nor...

Complications of Lung Injuries

If the blood in a pleural cavity is not removed, it will gradually break down, undergoing a series of color changes, red to brown, with the ultimate formation of a chocolate brown pigment deposit and turbid brown fluid. Intrapleural blood may be diluted by serous effusion. The lacerated lung, hemothorax, and diluting serous fluid are vulnerable to bacterial injection with production of pneumonia, lung abscesses, pleurisy, and empyema.

Primary Nursing Diagnosis

A variety of treatments have been used for IC, including dietary and fluid management, time and stress management, and behavioral modification. Certain foods such as coffee, alcohol, tomatoes, vinegar, and chocolate may aggravate symptoms of IC. Other interventions that have been used with varying success are biofeedback and pelvic floor rehabilitation such as Kegel exercises, and bladder training programs. Generally, treatments are initiated in a progressively more invasive fashion until symptomatic relief is obtained.

Direct Determination Of Oligofructose And Inulin In Commercial Food Products

In Table 4 are shown the results of the determination of oligofructose in different commercial food products with Dionex system. The recovery values obtained are in most cases superior to 95 . Furthermore, the relative standard deviation values (4.4, 6.0, 4.1 and 2.4 for filling, yogurt, cruesli and chocolate bars respectively) give evidence of the acceptable accuracy of the proposed method using this HPLC system. Chocolate bar

Applications Of Nirs To Foods

And snack foods (24, 25) beta-glucan in barley (26) starch in grains (27), pulses (28), and snack foods (25) starch damage in flour (29) amylose in rice (30) sucrose in chocolate (31) and wine (32) soluble solids in vegetables (33) and alcohol in beer (34) and wine (32).

Date palm Phoenix dactylifera Arecaceae

Fruits of these palms are an important source of sugar. Dates are a staple of nomadic peoples of Arabia and North Africa, and are dried or preserved with sugar and used as a dessert fruit. Evidence suggests that the date palm has been cultivated in Arabia and northeast-Saharan Africa since 4000 bc. The date palm Phoenix dactylifera is a cultigen thought to be a spontaneous hybrid with P. reclinata and the African wild date, P. sylvestris.

Khat Catha Qat Catha edulis Celastraceae

The use of qat first came to the attention of Europeans toward the end of the 17th century, but unlike other exotic stimulants known at the time (such as tea, coffee, and chocolate), it never became popular. This may have been partly because the stimulating effects of the leaves begin to fade within 48 hours. It is now sold as a legal high in the United Kingdom, but the market for it is very small.

Disorders of the Esophagus

Certain medications can interfere with the action of this muscle, including nitrates, calcium channel blockers, theophylline, and anticholinergics. Smoking and diet also contribute to GERD. Excessive consumption of chocolate, peppermint, coffee, alcohol, and fried or fatty foods can weaken the lower esophageal sphincter.

Mint Mentha spp Lamiaceae

Peppermint, Mentha x piperita, is a very widely cultivated medicinal and aromatic plant, and is particularly important for the production of menthol, which is used as a flavouring agent. Its medical uses are to treat flatulence and gastrointestinal cramps. The species is also used to flavour chocolate

Applicability Of Carbohydratebased Fat Mimetics In Different Lowfat Products

The highest level of penetration of carbohydrate-based replacers has been in the dairy sector. Polydextrose, cellulose-based products, and gums have greatly improved the quality of ice cream and other frozen desserts because of their freeze-thaw stability. In contrast, consumer acceptance of low-fat cheese products has been typically low because of inadequacies in texture, consistency and flavor. However, the development of reduced-fat cheese foods with microcrystalline cellulose in conjunction with gums like carrageenan are making some progress in this area (35). opment is confectionary. Low-fat products are less likely to succeed in such ''indulgence'' products. With chocolate confectionary, compositional requirements such as the presence of cocoa butter or cocoa butter equivalent make the development of low-fat chocolate an onerous task (21). Total fat reductions can be at most 20-25 with the current technology and regulatory systems if quality is to be maintained (22). Of the few...

Thaumatin Thaumatococcus daniellii Marantaceae

The biology and economics of the beverage industry. Economic Botany 1, 243-275. Coe, S.D., and Coe, M.D. 1996. The True History of Chocolate. New York Thames and Hudson. Coste, R. 1992. Coffee The Plant and the Product. London Macmillan. Young, A.M. 1994. The Chocolate Tree A Natural History of Cacao. Washington, D.C. Smithsonian Institution Press. Zohary, D. 2002. Domestication of the carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.). Israel Journal of Plant Sciences 50, S141-S145.

Control in processing

Cooking is often used as a primary process to destroy Listeria spp. in the manufacture of a variety of products including cooked meats, ready meals, dairy desserts, etc. The controlling factors important in ensuring the consistent delivery of correct cooking processes have already been described in this book for pathogenic E. coli and include all of the following

Carob Ceratonia siliqua Caesalpiniaceae

The carob pod is dried, roasted, and, after the seeds are removed, ground to be consumed as a beverage, as a coffee substitute. The ground pods also compete with cocoa powder, and can be made into bars of carob chocolate. Whole carob pods, with their thick, sweet pulp, were sold as sweets to be chewed raw in the United Kingdom during World War II when sweets were rationed, and are also used as animal fodder in the Middle East. As carob does not contain either caffeine or theobromine, it is marketed as a healthy substitute for coffee and chocolate.

Hydrocolloid Gum Blends

Gelatin is a well-established product that has an important use as a fat replacer in low-fat spreads, yogurt, sauces, dressings, desserts, and ice cream (56). The introduction of combinations of gelatin with various hydrocolloids has resulted Slimgel 100 i also has higher stability to a variety of food processing conditions (56). Slimgel products are used in meat products (Slimgel 100), spreads (usually Slimgel 200), dairy products and desserts, dressings and sauces, and baked products (56). Slimgel 100 i is preferably used in frozen desserts, dressings, and sauces because of its cold solubility, ease of use, and improved mouthfeel due to slower melting (56).

Comparing categories in a single sample

This is the simplest situation in which we collect frequency data observations are made with one sample from which two or more options may be selected. The frequency data shown in Table 5.6 was obtained in an experiment in which the preferences of a sample of students was observed for two different types of chocolate. The frequencies reported are the observed frequencies and the data are organized into three categories. The purpose of the experiment was to investigate whether there was a preference by test subjects for milk or dark chocolate or whether their selection was completely random. Null hypothesis There is no difference in the number of pieces of milk or dark chocolate selected by the group of students. Alternative hypothesis There is a difference in the number of pieces of milk or dark chocolate selected by the group of students.

Rosewood Dalbergia spp Fabaceae

Rosewood has creamy-white sapwood which contrasts dramatically with deep chocolate-brown to purple-black heartwood. True Brazilian rosewood (D. nigra) is strongly figured, not so with rosewood from India and Honduras (Indian rosewood D. latifolia) which has a pinkish hue and much finer figuring. The grain in both wild and cultivated supplies is straight to wavy with a coarse texture which is oily to the touch.

Western red cedar Thuja plicata Cupressaceae

This large tree, native to North America, is one of the most durable softwoods of all. It has a creamy white sapwood which contrasts dramatically with the heartwood which can vary from dark chocolate-brown to shrimp-pink. It is straight-grained with prominent growth rings. Western red

Biosynthesis Of Hypericin

Arabidopsis Transformation

Which is used to cure bronchial asthma. Theobromine is found in cocoa and related chocolate products (Dewick, 1998). Purine bases like adenine and guanine are transformed in these species to purine alkaloids. The biosynthesis of these compounds starts from xanthosine monophosphate methylation to give 7-methylxanthosine monophosphate. Alternatively the dephosphorylation of xanthosine monophosphate gives xan-thosine. The latter is the precursor of theophylline, whereas hydrolysis of the phosphate group of 7-methylxanthosine monophosphate gives 7-methylxanthosine. The latter compound undergoes cleavage of the ribose to yield 7-methylxanthine, which after successive methylations is transformed to theobromine and finally to caffeine. The hydrolysis of the phosphate ester of xanthosine monophosphate gives xanthosine. The latter compound, after cleavage of ribose and two methylations, is finally transformed to theophylline (Figure 7.31). Figure 7.31 Biosynthesis of the purine alkaloids...

Hydrocolloid Misc Low Calorie Foods

Prepn. of reduced calorie frozen dessert(s) by enzyme treatment of aq. milk ingredients to hydrolyse polysaccharide(s) to mono-saccharide(s), heating, and adding sweetener. Patent Assignee SHAZER W H (SHAZ-I) Inventor ELLE KELLER S E SHAZER W H Number of Countries 001 Number of Patents 001 Patent No Kind Date Applicat No Kind Date Main IPC Week US 5093137 A 19920303 US 90599219 A 19901017 199212 B Abstract (Basic) US 5093137 A Reduced calorie frozen dairy dessert prepn. comprises (a) a mixt. of milk ingredients (I) and H2O is heated to effect pasturisation (b) the mixt. is cooled and treated with an enzyme (II) for long enough to reduce milk polysaccharides to the monosaccharide components (c) the mixt. is heated for 5-60 min. at 70-95 C (d) a high potency sweetener (III) and flavours are added and (e) the mixt. is frozen. The prod. contains no added sugars or bulking agents. In step (1), (I) is pref. whole, skim, or condensed skim milk, or non-fat dry milk. Pasteurisation is pref. at...

Use of food additives in relation to their safety

In many long-term studies on carcinogenicity, amaranth has been found to be safe. It is used in food products, such as packaged soup, packaged cake and dessert mix, and canned fruit preserves. In the USA, however, amaranth is no longer in use. The reason for this is the development of tumors in rats fed on a diet containing 3 amaranth.

Subconscious Incubation

When we test normal people's memory by having them recognize previously presented words that come from the same semantic class or overlapping categories (e.g., sweets, M&M's, caramel, Milky Way, Snickers, chocolate), many normal people will have false memories and think they were told to recall closely related words (e.g., candy) (Schacter et al., 1997). According to associative theory, the distributed representations of the concepts of the words to be remembered substantially overlap the distributed representations of concepts that represent the falsely recognized words. When we tested high-functioning autistic patients (Beversdorf et al., 2000) with this false-memory paradigm, these autistic participants recalled fewer false memories and discriminated true memories from false memories better than did the normal control participants. These results suggest that people with autism have constricted their semantic representations (i.e., relatively sparse and...

Bioterrorism In History

The First World War gained the dubious honor of providing the stage for the introduction of chemical warfare. Unproven accusations that the Germans used anthrax and glanders as weapons against the U.S., and attempted to spread plague and cholera in Italy, Russia, and Romania, were rife at that time. The German military was also alleged to have dropped plague-contaminated chocolate and toys from airplanes in attempts to spread the disease among children. Subsequently, the League of Nations absolved the German forces of conducting germ warfare. However, the horrifying casualties resulting from the use of toxic gases on the battlefield led to the Geneva Protocol of 1925 prohibiting implementation of chemical and bacteriological agents in war. The protocol was signed by 108 nations. Libya and Iraq, future proponents of the use of chemical and biological weapons, were among the signatories. Late in the 20th century, Iraq employed chemical warfare agents in a war with Iran and against its...

Changing Nutritional Needs throughout Life

Healthy nutritious food available in your home. Keep healthy snacks cut-up vegetables, whole-grain crackers and pretzels, fresh fruit, cheese in your kitchen. Resist the temptation to buy high-fat, high-calorie foods. Stress the importance of having a good breakfast (see page 7) to your teenage children.

Survival models

Survival models are generally concerned with non-thermal inactivation under relatively mild conditions, often just outside the limits for growth. Some pathogens can remain viable for many months or even years in non-growth conditions. An outbreak of food poisoning caused by Salmonella Napoli in chocolate occurred in 1982 after such an occurrence and the infectious dose was judged to be as few as 50 organisms per patient (1.6cfu g of chocolate Greenwood and Hooper, 1983). Survival models can help us to understand the limits of survival in different food systems. They are less common than growth or death models because of some of the practical constraints on their creation but there are examples in the literature (Buchanan et al., 1994 Little et al., 1994 Whiting et al., 1996 Zaritzky et al., 1999).

Sample Requirements

For positive and negative controls, grow bacterial cells under the optimal conditions for the organism to be detected, either on solid or in liquid media. For N. meningitidis and S. pneumoniae, this is usually on Colombia blood agar with horse blood and, for H. influenzae, usually on chocolate blood agar, overnight at 37XC in 5 CO2. Appropriate media should be used for these organisms if grown in liquid media, such as brain heart infusion broth. If grown on solid media, emulsify approx 12 colonies in 100 L of sterile distilled water. If using liquid media, take 100 L of well-mixed culture. If using clinical samples, an aliquot of 100 L of fluid is required.

Reduced Fat Foods

Today's consumers are more aware of the nutritional value of the foods they eat. Although Americans have a growing preference for less fat in their food, they do not want to compromise organoleptic properties such as mouthfeel or taste. Hydrocolloids are ideally suited for the production of fine emulsions and fat-like systems. Moderate levels of hydrocolloids sequester larger amounts of water while maintaining fat-like texture in some fat-containing foods such as salad dressings, ground meat, processed cheese, and frozen desserts. For example, the use of gums to reduce the fat content in processed cheese spreads has been extensively studied (Brummel and Lee, 1990). Aqueous dispersions of gums have been shown to replace up to 50 percent of the fat, relative to the control cheese spread containing 25 percent fat, by increasing the moisture proportionally. Additionally, the addition of hydrocolloids to the formulation of fried snacks may help repel oil uptake during frying.


Lymphangioma Orbit Infiltration

CLINICAL PRESENTATION Eyelid involvement may present as a superficial lesion with multiple cyst-like excrescences, or as a complex of channels that cause lid thickening and distortion of the eyelid. Lymphangioma circumscripta reside near the skin surface and present as one or more crops of small, vesicle-like lesions which may become hyperkeratotic or verrucous and can become hemorrhagic especially following manipulation. Cavernous lymphangiomas present as spongy, vermiform lesions. Extensive involvement may be complicated by elephantiasis of the eyelid. Cystic hygroma is the most massive form of lymphangioma and usually involves the neck or extremities, and while seldom directly affecting the eyelid it may be associated with separate vascular lid abnormalities. Hemorrhage into any of these lesions may occur forming a clotted hematoma (chocolate cyst). Lesions may enlarge with upper respiratory infection due to proliferation of lymphoid aggregates within the tumor.

The Burned Body

Charred Body

A common artifact in severely burned bodies with charring of the head is the presence of a postmortem epidural hematoma (Figure 13.6). There should be no difficulty in distinguishing these from antemortem epidural hematomas. Postmortem fire epidurals are a chocolate brown color and have a crumbly or honeycomb appearance. They are large, fairly thick (up to 1.5 cm), and typically overlie the frontal, parietal, and temporal areas, in some cases with extension to the occipital area.


Use the AutoSum button to calculate the total number of pieces of chocolate consumed. Although the observed frequencies (number of pieces consumed) is recorded in the experiment, we now need to calculate the expected results, i.e. what results would we expect if the selection of the chocolate was a completely random process If the process were random, we would expect that it would be equally likely that the number of pieces of chocolate consumed would be exactly the same (like tossing a coin and choosing heads or tails), therefore the probability should be 50 50. (as there are two types of chocolate). On the Excel worksheet calculate the expected consumption using the above relationship, i.e. enter the formula (205+289) 2. An answer of 247 should be returned. If the selection of the chocolate pieces was completely random we would expect that exactly 247 pieces of both dark and milk chocolate would be eaten. We now have to test this against the observed results to find out whether our...


The word coca comes from the Aymara khoka, meaning the tree. Coca has nothing to do with the chocolate-producing nut called cocoa, and its only relation to the kola nut is phonetic. Although it is claimed that measurable quantities of cocaine and nicotine have been detected in 3000-year-old Egyptian mummies (Balabanova et al., 1992), these claims remain unconfirmed and unlikely. Cocaine and nicotine are derived from New World plants, and how they would have come to be used in Africa before the discovery of the New World remains a mystery. Even if such plants were known to the ancient Egyptians, Europeans did not hear about them until the Spanish colonized South America. When Spain took Peru in the 1500s, Spanish soldiers and explorers encountered Indians who had been chewing coca leaf for thousands of years.

600 Chocolate Recipes

600 Chocolate Recipes

Within this in cookbook full of chocolate recipes you will find over 600 Chocolate Recipes For Chocolate Lovers.

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