Insulin resistance

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Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance have been shown to increase the risk of CVDs or atherosclerosis in diabetic states, and being a potential risk factor in the development of hypertension, not only in diabetic patients but also in the general population. The mechanism by which hyperinsulinemia or insulin resistance increases the risk of atherosclerosis is still unclear. Many theories have been suggested, including insulin-induced salt retention, directly enhancing proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) (22,23), and indirectly regulating of endothelial cell homeostasis via the alteration of growth factors and cytokines in cells share extensive interaction with endothelial cells, such examples include fibroblasts, epithelial cells, VSMCs, and cardiomyocytes (24-26).

We have characterized insulin receptors on the vascular cells and reported that they are identical to those in the nonvascular cells with respect to binding, structure, and tyrosine

Table 1

Alterations of Cell Numbers Observed in Various Vascular Tissues in Diabetes

Table 1

Alterations of Cell Numbers Observed in Various Vascular Tissues in Diabetes

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