1. Mackenzie J. Irritation of the sexual apparatus as an etiological factor in the production of nasal disease. Ann J Med Sci 1884;87:360-365.
2. Barrett-Connor E. The 1995 Ancel Keys Lecture: Sex differences in coronary heart disease. Why are women so superior? Circulation 1997;95:252-264.
3. Sullivan JM, Fowlkes LP. The clinical aspects of estrogen and the cardiovascular system. Obstet Gynecol 1996;87:36S-43S.
4. Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA. Estrogen replacement therapy and coronary heart disease:a quantitave assesment of the epidemiologic evidence. Prev Med 1999;20:47-63.
5. Grodstein F, Manson JE, Colditz GA, et al. A prospective, observational study of postmenopausal hormone therapy and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Ann Intern Med 2000;133:933-934.
6. Hulley S, Grady D, Bush T, et al. Randomized trial of estrogen plus progestin for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women: Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) Research Group. JAMA 1998;280:605-613.
7. Manson JM, Hsia J, Johnson KC, et al. Estrogen plus progestin and the risk of coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med 2003;349:523-534.
8. Lee WL, Cheung AM, Cape D, Zinman B. Impact of diabets on coronary artery disease in women and men. Ann Rev Diabetes 2001;235-240.
9. Koh KK. Can a healthy endothelium influence the cardiovascular effects of hormone replacement therapy? Int J Cardiol 2003;87:1-8.
10. Gruber CJ, Tschugguel W, Schneeberger C, Huber J. Production and actions of estrogens. N Engl J Med 2002;346:340-351.
11. Selby C. Sex hormone binding globulin: origin, function and clinical significance. Ann Clin Biochem 1990;27:532-541.
13. Yen SSC, Jaffe RB, Barbieri RL. Reproductive Endocrinology, fourth ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1999, pp. 110-133,301-319,751-784.
14. Crook D. Cardiovascular risk assessment for postmenopausal hormone replacement therapies such as tibolone (Livial). In: Genazzani AR, (ed). Hormone Replacement Therapy and Cardiovascular Disease. New York: Parthenon, 2001, pp. 165-172.
15. Bryant HV, Dere WH. Selective estrogen receptor modulators: an alternative to hormone replacement therapy. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1998;217:45-52.
16. Knight DC, Eden JA. Plytoestrogens—a short review. Maturitas 1995;22:167-175.
17. Enmark E, Gustafsson J-A. Oestrogen receptors—an overview. J Int Med 1999;246:133-138.
18. Mendelsohn ME, Karas RH. Estrogen and the blood vessel wall. Curr Opin Cardiol 1994;9:619-626.
19. Herrington DM, Howard TD, Hawkins GA, et al. Estrogen-receptor polymorphisms and effects of estrogen replacement on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in women with coronary disease. N Engl J Med 2002;346:967-974.
20. Losordo DW, Kearney M, Kim EA et al. Variable expression of the estrogen receptor in normal and atherosclerotic coronary arteries of premenopausal women. Circulation 1994;89:1501-1510.
21. Post WS, Goldschmidt-Clermont PJ, Wilbide CC et al. Methylation of the estrogen receptor gene is associated with aging and atherosclerosis in the cardiovascular system. Cardiovasc Res 1999;43:985-991.
22. Kim HP, Lee JY, Teong JK, Bae SW, Lee HK, Jo I. Nongenomic stimulation of nitric oxide release by estrogen is mediated by estrogen receptor localized in caveolae. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1999;263:257-262.
23. Nadal A, Rovira JM, Laribi O, et al. Rapid insulinotropic effect of estradiol via a plasma membrane receptor. FASEB J 1998;12:1341-1348.
24. Rubanyi GM. The role of endothelium in cardiovascular hemeostasis and diseases. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1993;22:S1-S514.
25. Moncada S, Hiqqs A. The L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway. N Engl J Med 1993;329:2002-2012.
26. Liao JK. Endothelial nitric oxide and vascular inflammation. In: Panza JA, Cannon ROI, (eds). Endothelium, nitric oxide and atherosclerosis. Armonk NY: Futura, 1999, pp. 119-132.
27. Quyyumi AA. Endothelial function in health and disease: new insights into the genesis of cardiovascular disease. Am J Med 1998;105:325-395.
28. Kleinert H, Wallerath T, Euchenhofer C, Ihrig-Biedert I, Li H, Forstermann V. Estrogens increase transcription of the human endothelial NO synthase gene: analysis of the transcription factors involved. Hypertension 1998;32:588-592.
29. Nabel EL, Selwyn AP, Ganz P. Large coronary arteries in humans are responsive to changing blood flow: an endothelium dependent mechanism that fails in patients with atherosclerosis. J Am Coll Cardiol 1990;16: 349-356.
30. Celermajer DS, Sorensen KE, Gooch VM et al. Non-invasive detection of endothelial dysfunction in children and adults at risk of atherosclerosis. Lancet 1992;340:1111-1115.
31. Majmudar NG, Robson SC, Ford GA. Effects of menopause, gender, and estrogen replacement therapy on vascular nitric oxide activity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85:1577-1583.
32. Pinto S, Virdis A, Chiadoni L, et al. Endogenus estrogen and acetycholine-induced vasodilation in normotensive women. Hypertention 1997;29:268-273.
33. Kalantaridou SN, Naka KK, Papanikolaou E, et al. Impaired endothelial function in young women with premature ovarian failure: normalization with hormone therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89:3907-3913.
34. Kawano H, Motoyama T, Kugiyama K, et al. Menstrual cyclic variation of endothelium-dependent vasodilation of the branchial artery: possible role of estrogen and nitric oxide. Proc Assoc Am Physicians 1996;108:473-480.
35. English JL, Jacobs LO, Green G, Andrews TC. Effect of the menstrual cycle on endothelium-dependent vasodilation of the branchial artery in normal young women. Am J Cardiol 1998;82:256-258.
36. Lieberman EH, Gerhard MD, Uehata A,et al. Estrogen improves endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated vasodilation in postmenopausal women. Ann Intern Med 1994;121:936-941.
37. Best PJ, Berger PB, Miller VM, Lerman A. The effect of estrogen replacement therapy on plasma nitric oxide and endothelin-1 levels in postmenopausal women. Ann Intern Med 1998;128:285-288.
38. Sorensen KE, Dorup I, Hermann AP, Mosekilde L. Combined hormone replacement therapy does not protect women against the age-related decline in endothelium dependent vasomotor function. Circulation 1998;97:1234-1238.
39. John S, Jacobi J, Schlaich MP, Delles C, Schmieder RE. Effects of oral contraceptives on vascular endothelium in premenopausal women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000;183:28-33.
40. Sudhir K, Chou TM, Messina LM, et al. Endothelial dysfunction in a man with disruptive mutation in oestrogen-receptor gene. Lancet 1997;349:1146-1147.
41. Mendelsohn ME. Mechanisms of estrogen action in the cardiovascular system. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2000;74:337-343.
42. Gilligan DM, Badar DM, Panza JA, Quyyumi AA, Cannon RO III. Acute vascular effects of estrogen in postmenopausal women. Circulation 1994;90:786-791.
43. Kato S, Erdoh H, Masuhiro Y et al. Activation of the estrogen receptor through phosphorylation by mitogen-activated protein kinase. Science 1995;270:1491-1494.
44. Haynes MP, Sinha D, Russel KS, et al. Membrane estrogen receptor engagement activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase via the PI3-kinase-Akt pathway in human endothelial cells. Circ Res 2000;87: 677-682.
45. Chen Z, Yuhama IS, Galcheva-Gargova ZI, Karas RH, Mendelsohn ME, Shaul PW. Estrogen receptor alpha mediates the nongenomic activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase by estrogen. J Clin Invest 1999;103:401-406.
46. White RE. Estrogen and vascular function. Vasc Pharmacol 2002;38:73-80.
47. Mikkola T, Turunen P, Avela K, et al. 17-beta oestradiol stimulates prostacyclin but not endothelin-1 production in human vascular endothelial cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1995;80:1832-1836.
48. Spyridopoulos I, Sullivan AB, Kearney M, Isner JM, Losordo DW. Estrogen-receptor-mediated inhibition of human endothelial cell apoptosis:estradiol as a survival factor. Circulation 1997;95:1505-1514.
49. Kolodgie FD, Jacob A, Wilson PS, et al. Estradiol attenuates directed migration of vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro. Am J Pathol 1996;148:969-976.
50. Caulin-Glaser T, Watson CA, Pardi R, Bender JR. Effect of 17Q£stradiol on cytokine-induced endothelial cell adhesion molecule expression. J Clin Invest 1996;98:36-42.
51. Meilahn EN, Kuller LH, Mathews KA, Kiss JE. Hemostatic factors according to menopausal status and use of hormone replacement therapy. Ann Epidemiol 1992;2:445-455.
52. Nabulsi AA, Folsom AR, White A, et al. Association of HRT with various cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med 1993;328:1069-1075.
53. Winkler UH. Menopause, hormone replacement therapy and cardiovascular disease: a review of haemostaseological findings. Fibrinolysis 1992;6(Suppl 3):5-10.
54. Juhan-Vaque I, Alessi MC. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and atherothrombosis. Thromb Haemostasis 1993;70:138-143.
55. Koh KK, Mincemoyer R, Bui MN, et al. Effects of hormone-replacement therapy on fibrinolysis in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med 1997;336:683-690.
56. Kroon UB, Silverstolpe G, Tengborn I. The effects of transdermal estradiol and oral conjugated oestrogens on haemostasis variables. Thromb Haemost 1994 ; 71:420-421.
57. Rosendaal FR, Helmerhorst FM, Vandenbroucke JP. Female hormones and thrombosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2002;22:201-210.
58. Godsland IF. Effects of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy on lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein (a) concentrations: analysis of studies published from 1974-2000. Fertil steril 2001;75:898-915.
59. Kovanen PT, Brown MS, Goldstein JL. Increased binding of low density lipoprotein to liver membranes from rats treated with 17ß-ethinyl estradiol. J Biol Chem 1979;254:11,367-11,373.
60. Tikkanen MJ, Nikkia EA, Kuusi T, Sipinen S. High density lipoprotein-2 and hepatic lipase: reciprocal changes produced by estrogen and norgestrel. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1982;54:1113-1117.
61. Crook D, Stevenson JC. Transdermal hormone replacement therapy, serum lipids and lipoproteins. Br J Clin Pract 1996; 86:17-21.
62. Sack NM, Rader DJ, O' Cannon R. Oesrtrogen and inhibition of oxidation of low-density lipoprotein in post-menopausal women. Lancet 1994;343;269-270.
63. McNamara JR, Shah PK, Nakajima K, et al. Remnant-like particle (RLPs) cholesterol is an independent cardiovascular disease risk factor in women: results from the Framingham heart study. Atherosclerosis 2001;154:229-236.
64. Ossewaarde ME, Dallinga, Thie GM, Bots ML, et al. Treatment with hormone replacement therapy lowers remnant lipoprotein particles in healthy postmenopausal women: results from a randomized trial. Eur J Clin Invest 2003;33:376-382.
65. Ross R. Atherosclerosis: an inflammatory disease. N Engl J Med 1999;340:115-126.
66. Ridker PM, Hennekens CH, Buring JE, et al. C-reactive protein and other markers of inflammation in the prediction of cardiovascular disease in women. N Engl J Med 2000; 342: 836-843.
67. Cushman M. Effects of hormone replacement therapy and estrogen receptor modulators on markers of inflammation and coagulation. Am J Cardiol 2002;90 (Suppl):7-10.
68. Cushman M, Leqault C, Barret-Connor E, et al. Effect of postmenopausal hormones on inflammation— sensitive proteins: the Postmenopausal Estrogen Progestin Interventions (PEPI) Study. Circulation 1999;100:717-722.
69. Nunomura W, Takakuwa Y, Higashi T. Changes in serum concentration and mRNA level of rat C-reactive protein. Bioch Bioph Acta 1994;1227:74-78.
70. Vongpatanasin W, Tuncel M, Wang Z, et al. Differential effects of oral versus transdermal estrogen replacement therapy on C—reactive protein in postmenopausal women. J Am Col Cardiol 2003;41:1358-1363
71. Silvestri A, Gebara O, Vitale C, et al. Increased levels of C—reactive protein after oral hormone replacement may not be related to an increased inflammatory response. Circulation 2003;107:3165-3169.
72. Zanger D, Yang B K, Addams J, Waclaviw M A, et al. Divergent effects of hormone therapy on serum markers of inflammation in postmenopausal women with coronary artery disease on appropriate medical management. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000, 36; 1797-1802.
73. Sperti G, Van Leeuwen RT, Guax PH, Maseri A, Kluft C. Cultured rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells digest naturally produced extracellular matrix: involvement of plasminogen-dependent and plas-minogen-independent pathways. Circ Res 1992;71:385-392.
74. Colditz GA, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Rosner B, Speizer FE, Hennekens CH. Menopause and the risk of coronary heart disease in women. N Engl J Med1987; 316;1105-1110.
75. Mosca L. The role of hormone replacement therapy in the prevention of postmenopausal heart disease. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:2263-2272.
76. Grodstein F, Stampfer M. The epidemiology of coronary heart disease and estrogen replacement in postmenopausal women. Progress Cardiol 995;38:199-210.
77. Rackley CE. Estrogen and coronary artery disease in postmenopausal women. Am J Med 1995;99: 117-118.
78. Alexander KP, Newby LK, Hellkamp AS, et al. Initiation of hormone replacement therapy after acute myocardial infarction is associated with more cardiac events during follow-up. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001;38:1-7.
79. Hemminki E, Sihvo S. A review of postmenopausal hormone therapy recommendations: potential for selection bias. Obstet Gynecol 1993;82:1021-1028.
80. Barret-Connor E. Postmenopausal estrogen and prevention bias. Ann Intern Med 1991; 115 :455-456.
81. Adams MR, Register TC, Golden DK, Wagner JD, Williams JK. Medroxyprogesterone acetate antagonizes inhibitory effects of conjugated equine estrogens on coronary artery atherosclerosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1997;17:217-221.
82. Grodstein F, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE et al. Postmenopausal estrogen and progestin use and the risk of cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med 1996;335:413-461.
83. Grady D, Herrington D, Bittner V et al. Cardiovascular disease outcomes during 6.8 years of hormone therapy: Heart and Estrogen /progestin Replacement Study follow-up (HERS II ) JAMA 2002;288:49-57.
84. Clarke SC, Kelleher T, Lloyd-Jones H, Slack M, Schofield PM. A study of hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women with ischaemic heart disease: the Papworth HRT atherosclerosis study. Br J Obstet Gynecol 2002;109:1056-1062.
85. Herrington DM, Reboussin DM, Brosnihan KB et al. Effects of estrogen replacement on the progression of coronary artery atherosclerosis. N Engl J Med 2000;343:522-529.
86. Writing Group for the Women's Health Initiative Investigators. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results from the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2002;288:321-333.
87. Hodis HN, Mack WJ, Azen SP, et al., for the Women's Estrogen-Progestin Lipid-Lowering Hormone Atherosclerosis Regression Trial Research Group. Hormone therapy and the progression of coronary-artery atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med 2003;349:535-545.
88. Hodis HN, Mack MJ, Lobo R A, et al. Estrogen in the prevention of atherosclerosis: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 2001;135:939-953.
89. Wingrove CS, Garr E, Godsland IF, Stevenson JC. 17beta oestradiol enhances release of matrix metalloproteinase-2 from human vascular smooth muscle cells. Biochim Biophys Acta 1998;1406: 169-174.
90. Galis ZS, Khatri JJ. Matrix metalloproteinases in vascular remodelling and atherogenesis: the good, the bad ,and the ugly. Circ Res 2002;90:251-262.
91. Curry TE Jr, Osteen KG. Cyclic changes in the matrix metalloproteinase system in the ovary and uterus. Biol Reprod 2001;64:1285-1296.
92. Holm P, Andersen HL, Andersen MR, et al. The direct antiatherogenic effect of estrogen is present, absent or reversed, depending on the state of the arterial endothelium. Circulation 1999;100:1727-1733.
93. Herrington DM, Espeland MA, Crouse JR, et al. Estrogen replacement and branchial artery flow— mediated vasodilation in older women. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2001;21:1955-1961.
94. Mikkola TS, Clarkson TB. Estrogen replacement therapy, atherosclerosis, and vascular function.Cardio-vasc Res 2002;53:605-619.
95. Psaty BM,Smith NL,Lemaitre RN, et al. Hormone replacement therapy, prothrombotic mutations, and the risk of incident non fatal myocardial infarction in postmenopausal women. JAMA 2001;285: 900-913.
96. Price DT, Ridker PM. Factor V leiden mutation and the risk for thromboembolic disease: a clinical perspective. Ann Intern Med 1997;127:895-903.
97. Weiss EJ, Bray PF, Tayback M, et al. A polymorphism of a platelet glycoprotein receptor as an inherited risk factor for coronary thrombosis. N Engl J Med 1996;334:1090-1094.
98. Shlipak MG, Simon JA, Vittinghoff E, et al. Estrogen and progestin, lipoprotein(a), and the risk of recurrent coronary heart disease events after menopause. JAMA 2000;283:1845-1852.
99. Barrett-Connor E, Grady D, Sashegyi A, et al. Raloxifene and cardiovascular events in osteoporotic postmenopausal women: four-year results from the MORE (Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation) randomized trial. JAMA 2002;287:847-857.
100. Vanharanta M, Voutilainen S, Lakka TA, van der Lee LM, Adlercreutz H, Salonen JT. Risk of acute coronary events according to serum concentrations of enterolactone: a prospective population-based case control study. Lancet 1999;354:2112-2115.
101. Anthony MS, Clarkson TB, Bullock BC, Wagner JD. Soy protein versus soy phytoestrogens in the prevention of diet-induced coronary artery atherosclerosis of male cynomolgus monkeys. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1997;17:2524-2531.
102. Honore EK, Williams JK, Anthony MS, Clarkson JB. Soy isoflavones enhance coronary vascular reactivity in atherosclerotic female macaques. Fertil Steril 1997;67:148-154.
103. Nestel PJ, Jamashita T, Sasahara T, et al. Soy isoflavones improve systemic arterial compliance but not lipids in menopausal and perimenopausal women. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1997;17:3392-3398.
104. Anderson JW, Johnstone BM, Cook -Newell ME. Metaanalysis of the effects of soy protein intake on serum lipids. N Engl J Med 1995; 333:276-282.
105. Bjarnason NH, Bjarnason K, Haarbo J, Bennink HJ, Christiansen C. Tibolone: influence on markers of cardiovascular disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1997; 82:1752-1756.
106. Herrington DM. Hormone replacement therapy and heart disease-Replacing dogma with data. Circulation 2003;107:2-4.
107. Barrett-Connor E, Cohn BA, Wingard DL, Edelstein SL. Why is diabetes mellitus a stronger factor for fatal ischemic heart disease in women than in men? The Rancho Bernardo Study. JAMA 1991;265: 627-631.
108. Di Carli MF, Afonso L, Campisi R, et al. Coronary vascular dysfunction in premenopausal women with diabetes mellitus. Am Heart J 2002;144:711-718.
109. Lim SC, Caballero AE, Arora S et al. The effect of hormonal replacement therapy on the vascular reactivity and endothelial function of healthy individuals and individuals with type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:4159-4164.
110. Steinberg HO, Paradisi G, Cronin J, et al. Type II diabetes abrogates sex differences in endothelial function in premenopausal women. Circulation 2000;101:2040-2046.
111. Lantin-Hermoso RL, Rosenfeld CR, Yuhanna IS, German Z, Chen Z, Shaul PW. Estrogen acutely stimulates nitric oxide synthase activity in fetal pulmonary artery endothelium. Am J Physiol 1997; 273: L119-L126.
112. Herman SM, Robinson JTC, Mc Credie RJ, Adams MR, Boyer MJ. Androgen deprivation is associated with enhanced endothelium-dependent vasodilation in adult men. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1997;17:2004-2009.
113. Nuutila P, Knuuti MJ, Maki M, et al. Gender and insulin sensitivity in the heart and in skeletal muscles: studies using positron emission tomography. Diabetes 1995;44:31-36.
114. Mendelsohn ME. Nongenomic ER-mediated activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase: how does it work? what does it mean? Circ Res 2000;87:956-960.
115. Zancan V, Santagati S, Bolego C et al.17ß-estradiol decreases nitric oxide synthase II synthesis in vascular smooth muscle cells. Endocrinology 1999;158:617-621.
116. Williams SB, Goldfine AB, Timini FK, et al. Acute hyperglycemia attenuates endothelium dependent vasodilation in humans in vivo. Circulation 1998:97:1695-1701.
117. Maggi A, Cignarella A, Brusadelli A, Bolego C, Pinna C, Duglisi L. Diabetes undermines estrogen control of inducible nitric oxide synthase function in rat aortic smooth muscle cells through over expression of estrogen receptor-a. Circulation 2003;108:211-217.
118. Montelango A, Lasuncion MA, Pallardo LF. Longitudinal study of plasma lipoproteins and hormones during pregnancy in normal and diabetic women. Diabetes 1992;41:1651-1659.
119. Weiss DJ, Charles MA, Dunaif A et al.Hyperinsulinemia is associated with menstrual irregularity and altered serum androgens in Pima Indian women.Metabolism 1994;43:803-807.
120. Lindstedt G, Lundberg P-A, Lapidus L, Lundgreen H, Bengtsson C, Bjorntorp P. Low sex-hormone-binding globulin concentration as independent risk factor for development of NIDDM. Diabetes 1991;40:123-128.
121. Lapidus L, Lindstedt G, Lundberg PA, Bengtsson C, Gredmark T. Concentrations of sex-hormone-binding-globulin and corticosteroid binding globulin in serum in relation to cardiovascular risk factors and to 12-year incidence of cardiovascular disease and overall mortality in postmenopausal women. Clin Chem 1986;32:146-152.
122. Merz CNB, Johnson D, Sharaf BL, et al (for the WISE Study Group). Hypoestrogenemia of hypothalamic origin and coronary artery disease in premenopausal women:a report from the NHLBI-Spon-sored WISE study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;41:413-419.
123. Solomon CG, Hu FB, Dunaif A et al. Menstrual cycle irregularity and risk for future cardiovascular disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002;87:2013-2017.
124. Writing group for the PEPI trial. Effects of estrogen or estrogen/progestin regimens on heart disease risk factors in postmenopausal women. The postmenopausal Estrogen /Progestin Interventions (PEPI) trial. JAMA 1995;273:199-203.
125. Espeland MA, Hogan PE, Fireberg SE, et al. Effects of postmenopausal hormone therapy on glucose and insulin concentrations. Diabetes Care 1998;21:1584-1593.
126. Reubinoff BE, Wurtman J, Rojansky N, et al. Effects of hormone replacement therapy on weight, body composition, fat distribution, and food intake in early postmenopausal women: A prospective study. Fertil Steril 1995;64:963-967.
127. Sowers JR. Diabetes Mellitus and cardiovascular disease in women. Arch Intern Med 1998;158:617-621.
128. Walton C, Godsland IF, Proudler AJ, Wynn V, Stevenson JC. The effects of the menopause on insulin sensitivity, secretion and elimination in non-obese, healthy women. Eur J Clin Invest 1993;23:466-471.
129. Crook D, Godsland IF, Hull J, Stevenson JC. Hormone replacement therapy with dydrogesterone and 17-ß-oestradiol: effects on serum lipoproteins and glucose tolerance during 24 month follow up. Br J Obstet Gynecol 1997;104:298-302.
130. Goodman-Gruen D, Barrett-Connor E. Sex hormone-binding-globulin and glucose tolerance in postmenopausal women. Diabetes Care 1997;10:645-649.
131. Andersson B, Marin P, Lissner L, Vermeulen A, Bjorntorp P. Testosterone concentrations in women and men with NIDDM. Diabetes Care 1994;17:405-409.
132. Andersson B, Mattsson L-A, Hahn L, et al. Estrogen replacement therapy decreases hyperadrogenicity and improves glucose homeostasis and plasma lipids in postmenopausal women with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997;82:638-642.
133. Sowers MR, La Pietra MT. Menopause: its epidemiology and potential association with chronic diseases. Epidemiol Rev 1995;17:287-291.
134. Manson JE, Rimm EB, Golditz GA, et al. A prospective study of postmenopausal estrogen therapy and subsequent incidence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Ann Epidemiol 1992;2:665-669.
135. Gabal LL, Godman-Gruen D, Barrett-Connor E. The effects of postmenopausal estrogen therapy on the risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Am J Public Health 1997;87:443-447.
136. Kanaya AM, Herrington D, Vittinghoff E, et al. Glycemic effects of postmenopausal hormone therapy: The Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study. Ann Intern Med 2003;138:1-9.
137. Feher MD, Issacs AJ. Is hormone replacement therapy prescribed for post-menopausal diabetic women? Br J Clin Pract 1996;50:431-432.
138. Davies PH, Barnett AH. Hormone replacement therapy in women with diabetes mellitus: a survey of knowledge of risks and benefits. Practical Diabetes Int 1998;15:78-80.
139. Brussaard HE, Gevers Leuven JA, Frolich M, Kluft C, Krans HMJ. Short-term oestrogen replacement therapy improves insulin resistance, lipids and fibrinolysis in post-menopausal women with NIDDM. Diabetologia 1997;40:843-847.
140. Anderson B, Mattsson L-A.The effect of transdermal estrogen replacement therapy on hyperandrogenicity and glucose homeostasis in postmenopausal women with NIDDM. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1999;78:260-264.
141. Luotola H, Pyorala T, Loikkanen M. Effects of natural oestrgen/progestin substitution therapy on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in postmenopausal women. Maturitas 1986;8:245-249.
142. Cucinelli F, Paparella P, Soranna L, et al. Differential effect of transdermal estrogen plus progestogen replacement therapy on insulin metabolism in postmenopausal women : Relation to their insulinemic secretion. Eur J Endocrinol 1999;140:215-219.
143. Friday K, Dong C, Fontent R. Conjugated equine estrogen improves glycemic control and blood lipoproteins in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86:48-52.
144. Samaras K, Hayward CS, Sallivan D, Kelly RP, Campbell LV. Effects of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy on central abdominal fat, glycemic control, lipid metabolism, and vascular factors in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1999;22:1401-1407.
145. Boden G. Role of fatty acids in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and NIDDM. Diabetes 1997; 45:3-10.
146. Ferrara A, Karter AJ, Ackerson LM. Hormone replacement therapy is associated with better glycemic control in women with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2001;24:1144-1150.
147. Consensus opinion of the North American Menopause Society: Effects of menopause and estrogen replacement therapy or hormone replacement therapy in women with diabetes mellitus. Menopause 2000;7:87-95.
148. Brussaard HE, Geyers Leuven JA, Kluft C, et al. Effect of 17ß-estradiol on plasma lipids and LDL oxidation in postmenopausal women with type II diabetes mellitus. Arterioscler Throm Vasc Biol 1997;17:324-330.
149. Manwaring P, Morfis L, Diamond T, Howeys LG. The effects of hormone replacement therapy on plasma lipids in type 2 diabetes. Maturitas 2000;34:239-247.
150. Robinson JG, Brancati FL, Folson AR, Cai J, Nabulsi AA, Watson R. Can postmenopausal hormone replacement improve plasma lipids in women with diabetes? Diabetes Care 1996;19:480-488.
151. Perera M, Sattar N, Petrie JR, et al. The effects of transdermal estradiol in combination with oral norethisterone on lipoproteins, coagulation , and endothelial markers in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes: randomized, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86:1140-1143.
152. Crespo CJ, Smit E, Shelling A, Sempos CT, Andersen RE. Hormone replacement therapy and its relationship to lipid and glucose metabolism in diabetic and nondiabetic postmenopausal women: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III ). Diabetes Care 2002;25:1675-1680.
153. Manning PT, Allum A, Jones S, Wayne HF, Sutherland F, Williams SM. The effect of hormone replacement therapy on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes. Arch Intern Med 2001;161:1772-1776.
154. Feher MD, Coy A, Levy A, Mayne P, Lant AF. Short term blood pressure and metabolic effects of tibolone in postmenopausal women with non-insulin dependent diabetes. Br J Obstet Gynecol 1996; 103:281-283.
155. Glueck CJ, Lang J, Hamer T, Tracy T. Severe hypertriglyceridemia and pancreatitis when estrogen replacement therapy is given to hypertriglyceridemic women. J Lab Clin Med 1994;123:59-64.
156. Sattar N, Jaap AJ. Hormone replacement preparations and hypertriglyceridemia in women with NIDDM. Diabetes Care 1997;20:234-238.
157. Adami S, Rossini M, Zamberlan N, Bertoldo F, Dorizzi R, Lo Cascio V. Long-term effects of transdermal and oral estrogens on serum lipids and lipoproteins in postmenopausal women. Maturitas 1993;17:191-195.
158. Sattar n, Mckenzie J, MacCuish AC, Jaap AJ. Hormone replacement therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A cardiovascular perspective. Diabetic Med 1998;15:631-632.
159. Sattar N, Perera M, Small M, Lumsden M-A. Hormone replacement therapy and sensitive C-reactive protein concentrations in women with type-2 diabetes. Lancet 1999;354:487-488.
160. Perera M, Sattar N, Petrie JR, et al. The effects of transdermal estradiol in combination with oral norethisterone on lipoproteins coagulation, and endothelial markers in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes: a randomized placebo-controlled study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86:1140-1443.
161. Hahn L, Mattsson L-A, Anderson B, Tengborn L. The effects of oestrogen replacement therapy on haemostatic variables in postmenopausal women with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Blood Coag Fibrinol 1999;10:81-85.
162. Lee SJ, Lee DW, Kim KS, Lee IK. Effect of estrogen on endothelial dysfunction in postmenopausal women with diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2001;54 (Suppl 2):581-592.
163. Kon K, Kang MH, Jin DK, et al. Vascular effects of estrogen in type II diabetic postmenopausal women. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001;38:1409-1415.
164. Perera M, Petrie JR, Hillier C, et . Hormone replacement therapy can augment vascular relaxation in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. Human Reprod 2002;17; 497-502.
165. Mc Veigh GE, Brennan GM, Johnston GD, et al. Impaired endothelium-dependent and independent vasodilation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia 1992;35:771-776.
166. Hayward CS, Samaras K, Campbell L, Kelly RP. Effect of combination hormone replacement therapy on ambulatory blood pressure and arterial stiffness in diabetic postmenopausal women. Am J Hypert 2001;14:699-703.
167. Manwaring P, Phoon S, Diamond T, Howes LG. Effects of hormone replacement therapy on cardiovascular responses in postmenopausal women with and without type 2 diabetes. Maturitas 2002;43:157-164.
168. Kaplan RC, Heickbert SR, Weiss NS, et al. Postmenopausal estrogens and risk of myocardial infarction in diabetic women. Diabetes Care 1998;21:1117-1121.
169. Lawrenson RA, Leydon GM, Newson RB, et al. Coronary heart disease in women with diabetes: positive association with past hysterectomy and possible benefits of hormone replacement therapy. Diabetes Care 1999;22:856-857.
170. Petitti DB, Sidney S, Guesenberry CD. Hormone replacement therapy and the risk of myocardial infarction in women with coronary risk factors. Epidemiology 2000;11:603-606.
171. Ferrara A, Quesenberry, Karter AJ, et al. Current use of unopposed estrogen and estrogen plus progestin and the risk of acute myocardial infarction among women with diabetes. The Northern California Kaiser Rermanente Diabetes Registry, 1995-1998. Circulation 2003;107:43-48.
172. Grodstein F, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ. Postmenopausal hormone use and secondary prevention of coronary events in the Nurses Health Study: a prospective, observational study. Ann Intern Med 2001;135:1-8.
173. Lokkegaard E, Pedersen AJ, Heitmann BL, et al. Relation between hormone replacement therapy and ischaemic heart disease in women: prospective observational study BMJ 2003;326:1-5.
174. Dubuisson JT, Wagenknecht LE, D'Agostino RB Jr, et al. Association of hormone replacement therapy and carotid wall thickness in women with and without diabetes. Diabetes Care 1998;21:1790-1795.
175. Furberg CD, Wittinghoff E, Davidson M, et al. Subgroup interactions in the Heart and Estrogen/ progestin Replacement Study :lessons learned. Circulation 2002;105:917-922.
176. Barrett-Connor E, Wenger NK, Grady D, et al. Hormone and non-hormone therapy for the maintenance of postmenopausal health: the need for randomized controlled trials of estrogen and raloxifene. J Women's Health 1998;7:839-847.
177. Franks S. Polycystic ovary syndrome. N Engl J Med 1995;333:853-861.
178. Polson DW, Adams J, Wadsworth J, Franks S. Polycystic ovaries- a common finding in normal women. Lancet 1988;1:870-872.
179. Lobo RA, Carmina E. The importance of diagnosing the Polycystic ovary syndrome. Ann Intern Med 2000;132:989-993.
180. Burghen GA, Givens JR, Kitabchi AE. Correlation of hyperandrogenism with hyperinsulinism in polycystic ovarian disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1980;50:113-116.
181. Chang RJ, Nakamura RM, Judd HL, Kaplan SA. Insulin resistance in non obese patients with polycystic ovarian disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1983;57:356-359.
182. Dunaif A. Insulin resistance and the polycystic ovary syndrome: Mechanism and implications for pathogenesis. Endocrine Reviews 1997;18:774-800.
183. Amowitz LL, Sobel BE. Cardiovascular consequences of polycystic ovary syndrome. Endocrinol Metab Clin 1999;28:439-458.
184. Nestler JE, Jakubowicz DJ, Reamer P, Gunn RD, Allan G. Ovulatory and metabolic effects of D-chiro-inositol in the polycystic ovary syndrome. N Engl J Med 1999;340:1314-1320.
185. Ehrmann DA, Barnes RB, Rosenfield RL, Cavaghan MK, Imperial J. Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Diabetes Care 1999;22:141-146.
186. Legro RS, Kunselman AR, Dodson WC, Dunaif A. Prevalence and predictors of risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in polycystic ovary syndrome: a prospective, controlled study in 254 affected women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:165-169.
187. Cibula D, Cifkova R, Fanta M, Poledne R, Zivny J, Skibova J. Increased risk of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension and coronary artery disease in perimenopausal women with a history of the polycystic ovary syndrome. Hum Reprod 2000;15:785-789.
188. Legro RS. Diabetes prevalence and risk factors in polycystic ovary syndrome. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 2001;28:99-109.
189. Wild RA. Polycystic ovary syndrome: a risk for coronary artery disease? Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002;186:35-43.
190. Wild RA, Painter PC, Coulson PB, Carruth KB, Ranney GB. Lipoprotein lipid concentrations and cardiovascular risk in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1985;61: 946-951.
191. Legro RS, Kunselman AR, Dunaif A. Prevalence and predictors of dyslipidemia in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Am J Med 2001;111:607-613.
192. Dahlgren E, Johansson S, Lindstedt G, et al. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome wedge resected 1956 to 1965: a long term follow up focusing on natural history and circulating hormones. Fertil Steril 1992;57:505-513.
193. Dahlgren E, Janson PO, Johansson S, Lapidus L, Lindstedt G, Tengborn L. Hemostatic and metabolic variables in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 1994;61:455-460.
194. Keber I, Keber D. Increased plasminogen activator inhibitor activity in survivors of myocardial infarction is associated with metabolic risk factors of atherosclerosis. Haemostasis 1992;22:187-194.
195. Paradisi G, Steinberg HO, Hempfling A, et al. Polycystic ovary syndrome is associated with endothelial dysfunction. Circulation 2001;103:1410-1415.
196. Talbott EO, Guzick DS, Sutton-Tyrell K, et al. Evidence for an association between polycystic ovary syndrome and premature carotid atherosclerosis in middle-aged women. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2000;20:2414-2421.
197. O'Leary DH, Polak JF, Kronmal RA, Manolio TA, Burke GL, Wolfson SK. Carotid-artery intima and media thickness as a risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke in older adults. Cardiovascular Health Study Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med 1999;340:14-22.
198. Birdsall MA, Farquhar CM, White HD. Association between polycystic ovaries and extent of coronary artery disease in women having cardiac catheterization. Ann Intern Med 1997;126:32-35.
199. Hoeger K. Obesity and weight loss in polycystic ovary syndrome. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 2001;28: 85-97.
200. Holte J, Bergh T, Berne C, Wide L, Lithell H. Restored insulin sensitivity but persistently increased early insulin secretion after weight loss in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1995;80:2586-2593.
201. Andersen P, Seljeflot I, Abdelnoor M, et al. Increased insulin sensitivity and fibrinolytic capacity after dietary intervention in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Metabolism 1995;44:611-616.
203. Dunaif A, Scott D, Finegood D, Quintana B, Whitcomb R. The insulin sensitizing agent troglitazone: a novel therapy for the polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996;81:3299-3306.
204. Ehrmann DA, Schneider DJ, Sobel BE, et al. Troglitazone improves defects in insulin action, insulin secretion, ovarian steroidogenesis, and fibrinolysis in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997;82:2108-2116.
205. Azziz R, Ehrmann D, Legro RS, et al. Troglitazone improves ovulation and hirsutism in the polycystic ovary syndrome: a multicenter, double blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86:1626-1632.
206. Paradisi G, Steinberg HO, Shepard MK, Hook G, Baron AD. Troglitazone therapy improves endothelial function to near normal levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003;88:576-580.
207. Ghazeeri G, Kutteh WH, Bryer-Ash M, Haas D, Ke RW. Effect of rosiglitazone on spontaneous and clomiphene citrate-induced ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2003;79:562-566.
208. Glueck CJ, Moreira A, Goldenberg N, Sieve L, Wang P. Pioglitazone and metformin in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome not optimally responsive to metformin. Hum Reprod 2003;18:1618-1625.
209. DeFronzo RA, Barzilai N, Simonson DC. Mechanism of metformin action in obese and lean noninsulin-dependent diabetic subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1991;73:1294-1301.
210. Nestler JE, Jakubowicz DJ. Decreases in ovarian cytochrome p450c17alpha activity and serum free testosterone after reduction of insulin secretion in polycystic ovary syndrome. N Engl J Med 1996;335:617-623.
211. Velazquez EM, Mendoza S, Hamer T, Sosa F, Glueck CJ. Metformin therapy in polycystic ovary syndrome reduces hypernsulinemia, insulin resistance, hyperandrogenaemia, and systolic blood pressure, while facilitating normal menses and pregnancy. Metab Clin Exp 1994;43:647-654.
212. Moghetti P, Castello R, Negri C, et al. Metformin effects on clinical features, endocrine and metabolic profiles, and insulin sensitivity in polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 6-month trial, followed by open, long-term clinical evaluation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85:139-146.
213. Nestler JE, Jakubowicz DJ. Lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome respond to insulin reduction with decreases in ovarian p450c17alpha activity and serum androgens. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997;82:4075-4079.
214. Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE, Hamman RF, Lachin JM, Walker EA, Nathan DM; Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 2002;346:393-403.
215. Glueck CJ, Wang P, Kobayashi S, Philips H, Sieve-Smith L. Metformin therapy throughout pregnancy reduces the development of gestational diabetes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2002;77:520-525.
216. Nestler JE, Jakubowicz DJ Evans WS, Pasquali R. Effects of metformin on spontaneous and clomi-phene-induced ovulation in the polycystic ovary syndrome. N Engl J Med 1998;338:1876-1880.
217. Stadtmauer LA, Toma SK, Riehl RM, Talbert LM. Metformin treatment of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome undergoing in vitro fertilization improves outcomes and is associated with modulation of insulin- like growth factors. Fertil Steril 2001;75:505-509.
218. Jakubowicz DJ, Iuorno MJ, Jakubowicz S, Roberts KA, Nestler JE . Effects of metformin on early pregnancy loss in the polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002;87:524-529.
Was this article helpful?
If you weaken the center of any freestanding structure it becomes unstable. Eventually, everyday wear-and-tear takes its toll, causing the structure to buckle under pressure. This is exactly what happens when the core muscles are weak – it compromises your body’s ability to support the frame properly. In recent years, there has been a lot of buzz about the importance of a strong core – and there is a valid reason for this. The core is where all of the powerful movements in the body originate – so it can essentially be thought of as your “center of power.”