Evaluation And Treatment

The decision to evaluate and ultimately treat an infant for congenital syphilis is based on clinical, laboratory, radiographic, and epidemiological considerations. The evaluation includes an assessment of the mother's serologic status (40). If the mother has been treated, the health care provider must assess the adequacy of therapy (Table 2). At a minimum, all infants born to mothers who have reactive nontreponemal and treponemal test results should be evaluated with a serum quantitative...

Diagnostic Tests For Evaluation Of Chlamydia Infection In The Mother And Infant

As C. trachomatis is an obligate intracellular parasite, isolation of the organism must be performed in tissue culture, with culture confirmation by staining with species-specific fluorescent monoclonal antibodies and identification of the characteristic intracytoplasmic inclusions with microscopy. Until recently, the gold standard of diagnosis of C. trachomatis infection in women was isolation by culture from the cervix (2). Culture requires careful specimen collection and stringent transport...

Incidence And Sources Of Cytomegalovirus Infection

The overall incidence of CMV infection in adults estimated from large studies of blood donors, hospital workers, and pregnant women is around 1-2 per year (17,19,20). Higher rates of primary CMV infection have been documented in women of lower socioeconomic status. In developing countries, most people acquire CMV during early childhood. Studies have clearly shown the importance of both sexual activity and close contact with CMV-infected children as sources of maternal CMV infection (11)....

Hepatitis E Virus

Hepatitis E virus HEV is still a relatively newly discovered virus. HEV is a small, nonenveloped, single-stranded plus sense RNA virus. The viral genome includes 7500 bp that code for three sets of genes. HEV is genetically related to the Calicivirus family. It has two distinct geographic subtypes, the Asian and Mexican strains 23,24 . HEV is transmitted by fecal-oral contact. It occurs primarily in outbreaks in underdeveloped countries but can also occur sporadically. The source of the...

Risk Of Fetalneonatal Infection

Maternal Varicella

In addition to postnatal spread by the airborne route, varicella may spread by the transplacental route from mother to infant. The transmission rate by this route is thought to be 25-50 this is lower than the rate of transmission following household exposure, which is closer to 90 7 . Women with active varicella at term are at risk of infecting their infants by the transplacental route as well as from exposure to external lesions following the baby's birth. It appears, however, that infants...

Acute Chorioamnionitis

Chorioamnionitis Pregnancy

Benirschke and Kaufmann feel that chorioamnionitis which they use as synonymous with acute chorioamnionitis is always their bold caused by infection 3 . Other forms of injury to the placenta, such as infarction, will also illicit an acute inflammatory reaction but will be localized to the area of injury. Acute chorioamnionitis is the most common diagnosis rendered on the placenta. Despite this, no universally accepted definition, grading, or staging system has been developed. Acute...

Fetal Inflammatory Response Of Umbilical And Chorionic Plate Vessels

Fetal Inflammatory Response

Fetal response to infection occurs after the maternal response and usually suggests a more well-established infection. It may be attenuated or absent in midgestation, although I have seen significant funisitis as early as 18 weeks of gestation. Funisitis and Vasculitis Gross and Microscopic Funisitis can rarely be grossly identified. The umbilical cord may be quite edematous. Within the extra fluid within the cord substance, large accumulations of neutrophils may be visible as white rings...