The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2002 Guidelines for the Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases recommend that screening for C. trachomatis be performed at the first prenatal visit and in the third trimester for women at increased risk (i.e., women <25 years of age and women who have had a new or more than one sexual partner or whose partner has other partners ). If screening is performed only during the first trimester, a longer period exists for acquiring infection before delivery. The major purpose of screening is to prevent postnatal maternal complications (i.e., en-dometritis) and chlamydial infection in the infant. As stated, evidence for adverse effects during pregnancy is minimal. Anecdotal evidence suggests that systematic screening for C. trachomatis infection and treatment of pregnant women has resulted in a significant reduction in perinatally acquired infection in infants (18). However, infection in the infant may still occur if the mother was missed on screening or, more frequently, was reinfected later in pregnancy because of failure to treat the sexual partner or new sexual partner.
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