In the prevaccine era, paralytic poliomyelitis occurred in pregnant women at a rate greater than age-adjusted expected rates (2,3,5,6,76). This increased risk was not trimester specific. In addition, pregnant women with poliomyelitis had a higher mortality rate than nonpregnant women in some series, with the risk greatest in the last trimester and puerperium in some reports (3,6). Among survivors, sequelae such as paralysis were not more common following infection during gestation (3).
Nonpoliovirus EV infections, both asymptomatic and symptomatic, occur frequently during pregnancy. In one seroepidemiologic survey conducted over a 10-year period, 42% of pregnant women were infected with EVs (18). In another study, coxsackie B virus infections were identified serologically in 9% of women during pregnancy (77). Twenty-five percent of pregnant women had serologic evidence of an EV infection during the 3-month period surrounding delivery in a study conducted in peak EV season. Of pregnant women, 3-4% shed EVs from the throat or rectum near delivery during EV season, frequently with minimal or no symptoms (69). In several reports of stillbirths following EV infection, maternal illnesses suggestive of chorioamnionitis, influenzalike disease, or meningitis are described (11-14).
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The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.