Electromagnetic Radiation and Human Health

How To Beat Electrical Sensitivity

This ebook is the complete guide to learning about electrical sensitivity and how to prevent getting it in your life. You will learn what electrical sensitivity is, and what causes it. Once you have started learning about it you will learn how to get rid of it and protect yourself from the dangers of electrical sensitivity. You will also learn how to heal yourself. This book is the product of careful research by the scientific and medical communities into the dangers and preventative measures of electrical sensitivity. ES is one of the most under-diagnosed conditions in the world right now, and this ebook is designed to education people as to how it works and how to prevent it. Do not let it take hold of your family; take control and prevent it now! Do not let yourself get any more hurt; learn about this condition and fight it! More here...

How To Beat Electrical Sensitivity Overview

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Sources of Radiation Exposure

Lowest dose with notable bone marrow suppression with decrease in blood counts is 10 to 50 rem (100 to 500 mSv, 0.1 to 0.5 Gy). Lowest total body dose from ionizing radiation in which death may be seen is in the range of 1.0 to 2.0 Gy. Cause large doses of whole body radiation exposure.

Risk Factors and Cancer

Ionizing radiation is a universal but weak carcinogen.1,39 However, cumulative exposures from medical diagnostic and treatment procedures, commercial, occupational sources, or waste increase the risk of cancer. Leukemias and cancers of the breast, lung, and thyroid are typical but cancers of the stomach, colon, and bladder, and potentially any human tumor may be seen. Radiation can cause most types of cancer, especially myelogenous leukemia and cancers of the breast, thyroid, and lung. Some cancers that have not been linked to radiation include chronic lymphocytic leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, and cancers of the cervix, testis, prostate, and pancreas. Despite the massive radiation contamination resulting from the nuclear reactor accidents at Chernobyl and Chelyabinsk thus far the only well-documented increase in cancer is childhood thyroid cancer.40 Finally, genetic predisposition can increase the risk of developing cancer by exposure to radiation, as in the...

Pump Energy and Efficiency

To produce and maintain the population inversion necessary to sustain stimulated emission and laser action, energy must be injected from the outside. The method by which this pumping is achieved varies with the lasing medium used. In gas, ion, and metal-vapor lasers, electromagnetic energy is used to produce and in some cases confine the plasma that serves as the lasing medium. In pulsed lasers, in which the lasing medium might be a solution of fluorescent dye or a ruby or yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) rod, light from a flashlamp is often the pump energy source. In a continuous wave (CW), as opposed to pulsed, dye or YAG laser, the output of a pump laser, typically an ion laser in the former case and a diode laser in the latter, is used. Diode lasers themselves are pumped by input of electric current. Since a substantial power density of excitation is typically necessary to produce a population inversion, for all laser types there is a threshold level of pump power below which laser...

Conditions That May Simulate Verruca Vulgaris

These rare lesions can simulate VV both clinically and histologically. The distinction is important because both are capable of metastasis. More often they cause local invasion which necessitates amputation or deforming surgery. Verrucous carcinomas are sizable fungating lesions, often on the soles. These should be referred to a dermatologist for management. Any subungual warty lesion that does not respond promptly to therapy should be referred to a dermatologist for evaluation. This is especially true in an adult patient or when there is a history of prior radiation exposure.

Therapeutic Chemotherapy

Radiotherapy has proved effective in head and neck cancer. Its mechanism of cell killing is postulated to be mediated by the direct interaction of superoxide radicals with cellular enzymes and DNA, indicating that adequate oxygen content of the tumor is necessary for efficacy of this treatment.35 In addition, radiotherapy has been found to be most effective during the G2 and M stages of the cell cycle. Adding chemotherapy to radiation has several theoretical benefits. Chemotherapy can prevent the repair of sublethal damage inflicted by ionizing radiation. Certain drugs act as sensitizers (e.g., 5-FU) and improve the effect of radiation on tumors. Some drugs are particularly toxic to hypoxic cells (mitomycin C) and thus can target a population that is radioresistant. Both cause apoptosis, probably by different mechanisms, so each potentiates the other.12 Chemotherapy often causes growth arrest of cells at a certain part of the cell cycle, allowing them to be more sensitive to...

Primary Nursing Diagnosis

Mohs surgery is microsurgery involving serial (step-by-step) removal of tissue. Topical chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil interferes with the cells' ability to use essential metabolites. Chemotherapeutic agents destroy the life cycles of cells. Low-dose particulate-electromagnetic radiation to the specific carcinoma destroys the affected cells without destroying the normal cells. Chemosurgery consists of periodically applying fixative pastes such as zinc chloride and then removing fixed pathological tissue until the tumor is completely removed.

Biopotential Amplifiers

Power Line Radiation

The human body is a good conductor and thus will act as an antenna to pick up electromagnetic radiation present in the environment. As shown in Figure 1.2, one common type of electromagnetic radiation is the 50 60-Hz wave and its harmonics coming from the power line and radiated by power cords. In addition, other spectral components are added by fluorescent lighting, electrical machinery, computers,

Historical Perspective

Clearly, none of these techniques meets current guidelines on acceptable radiation exposure for healthy subjects or patients. Most are also inconvenient due to the laborious stool analytical procedures involved. Nevertheless, these approaches provide interesting landmarks in this field and illustrate the concept that assessment of gut transit has been deemed an important goal for the clinician.

Measurement of Small Bowel Transit

Radiation exposure Radiation exposure acceptable for clinical Radiation exposure acceptable for clinical been used as markers to evaluate small-bowel transit. In general, this methodology requires gamma camera equipment and adequate precautions (a pregnancy test in women of child-bearing potential) owing to the exposure to radiation. The exposure should be restricted according to guidelines for clinical and research practice. It is important to note that radiation exposure does not increase as more images are obtained by the gamma camera in research studies. Typical radiation exposures are shown in Table 7.3. Radiolabeled polystyrene ionexchange pellets were extensively used at the Mayo Clinic because they remained nondi-gestible and unaltered in size at the range of pH found in the stomach and small intestine hence, the same marker evaluated gastric emptying and small-bowel transit. (< 2mm size), the prolonged mouth-to-cecum transit times observed in patients with gastro-paresis or...

Combined Measurement of Gastrointestinal and Colonic Transit

The noninvasive techniques that evaluate transit of solid particles of the same size through the stomach, small bowel, and colon provide reliable assessments in the majority of patients with common GI symptoms such as nausea,vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and constipation. There is likely to be a significant growth in the application of these methodologies in the near future. The combination of transit measurements within one study limits radiation exposure, and by optimal use of personnel and equipment, leads to improved efficacy and reduction in costs. health from disease states associated with accelerated or delayed colonic transit.52 These data appear to justify the authors' preference for the scintigraphic approach over the more widely used radiopaque marker methods in conditions associated with rapid colonic transit, since radiopaque markers may have already passed through part or all of the colon at the time the abdominal radiograph is taken (day 4). A more accurate...

Tamoxifen and Breast Cancer Prevention

Thirty years ago, tamoxifen was shown to prevent the induction and promotion of carcinogen-induced mammary cancer in rats.92,200 Similarly, tamoxifen was also shown to prevent the development of mammary cancer induced by ionizing radiation in rats. These laboratory observations, coupled with the emerging preliminary clinical observation that

Principle Of Magnetic Manipulation Of Cells

Both components of electromagnetic fields, electric and magnetic, can be used to control the motion of biological cells in fluids. In electric manipulation, electric fields interact directly with the electrical properties of biological cells as well as surrounding media to generate force on the cells. For example, in cell electrophoresis DC electric fields interact with the static charges of cells and media 10 cell dielectrophoresis exploits the difference of polarizabilities between cells and media under AC electric fields 11 . In magnetic manipulation, however, neither biological cells nor media directly interact with magnetic fields because of their intrinsically low magnetic susceptibilities, both biological cells and media are transparent to magnetic fields 12 . To manipulate cells using magnetic fields, extrinsic magnetic moments should be imparted to cells, which is achieved by labeling cells with magnetically responsive microspheres, magnetic beads.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

For imaging, the subject is placed in a strong static magnetic field created by a large enclosing electromagnet. The resolution is mainly determined by the gradient or shape of the magnetic field, and it is typically 1 mm. Images are calculated by reconstruction algorithms based on the sensed voltages proportional to the relaxation times. Tomo-graphic images of cross-sectional slices of the body are computed. The imaging process is fast and safe because no ionizing radiation is used. Because the equipment needed to make the images is expensive, exams are costly.

Analyzing Drugs In The Forensic Science Laboratory

Infrared spectrophotometry is one of the most specific instrumental methods for the identification of a controlled substance. A pure drug as a thin film on a KBr salt plate, or as crystals mounted in a KBr matrix are placed into the sample compartment of the infrared spectropho-tometer. A source of electromagnetic radiation in the form of light from a Nernst glower passes light through the sample. The instrument, through a mechanical means, splits the beam into a reference beam and an incident beam. The reference beam passes unobstructed through a monochrometer to a photometer the incident beam passes through the mounted sample through the same monochrometer to the photometer. The reference beam passes 100

Radiographic Evaluation

The widths of the posterior mandible and maxilla are determined primarily by clinical examination. Bone width not revealed on a panoramic film can be evaluated in the anterior maxilla and mandible with a cephalometric film (Fig. 13-7). The location of the inferior alveolar canal and maxillary sinus can be determined by specialized CT scans, although high radiation exposure and considerable expense may li mit their routine use.

See also cohort controlled trial experimental observational study

This factor can be infectious (e.g. a virus, bacteria, etc.), physical (e.g. ionizing radiation, electrical fields, etc.) or chemical (e.g. pesticides, vitamins, drugs, etc.). For some authors, the definition also includes individual characteristics such as age, race, a given phenotype, etc.

Arresting the Growth of Feeder Cells

Cells can be growth arrested by treatment with mitomycin C or by exposure to ionizing radiation. We have greater experience with the use of y-irradiation. Our approach is laborious, requiring prior planning to coordinate access to appropriate equipment. However, multiple vials of ready-to-use cells are prepared for frozen storage (1 vial per confluent 75-cm2 flask), ensuring uniform cell monolayers without recourse to continuous preparation and cell counting (as is necessary with the use of mitomycin C). The numbers in Protocol 5.2 purposefully overestimate needs to allow for an inevitable degree of cell death during the irradiation freeze-thaw procedure. Overall, in our experience this approach is economical on time and consumables and provides consistent monolayers of STO fibroblast feeder cells.

Electromagnetic Compatibility And Medical Devices

Have you heard about the wheelchair that moved on its own every time a police car passed by No, it's not part of a joke. This actually happened, and several people were seriously injured when radio signals from the two-way communications equipment on emergency vehicles and boats, CB, and amateur radios interfered with proper operation of the control circuitry of powered wheelchairs, sending some off curbs and piers. Similar reports of improper operation of apnea monitors, anesthetic gas monitors, and ECG and EEG monitors due to electromagnetic interference prompted government agencies to look carefully at these occurrences and establish regulations by which equipment must possess sufficient immunity to operate as intended in the presence of interference. Obviously, self-interference within a circuit must be eliminated to make the product workable, but this still does not make the product marketworthy. This is because strict regulations concerning electromagnetic compatibility are now...

Emissions From Medical Devices

The FCC's main concern with RF emissions from electronic devices is possible interference with communications devices such as commercial radio and TV receivers. From the point of view of agencies regulating medical devices (in the United States the FDA), the concern about unintentional electromagnetic emissions extends to the way in which they could interfere with diagnostic or therapeutic medical devices. Note the word unintentional, since these standards do not apply directly to medical devices that intentionally generate electromagnetic signals (e.g., telemetry ECG transmitters, electrosurgery equipment, magnetic resonance imagers) which require special emissions that limit exemptions at specifically allocated frequency bands. EN-60601-1-2 sets forth requirements for emissions based on the CISPR-11 standard developed by the International Electrotechnical Commission's Special Committee on Radio Interference (CISPR). These requirements address both radiated emissions (i.e.,...

Dynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Nuclear Imaging

Defecation requires intraabdominal pressure coordinated with relaxation of the anal sphincters and pelvic floor muscles, particularly the puborectalis muscles. Pelvic floor motion can be imaged in real-time by barium fluoroscopy, radioisotope scintigraphy, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Barium evacuation proc-tography was described in separate reports by Burhenne1 in 1964 and Phillips and Edwards2 in 1965. O'Connell et al3 developed scintigraphy to quantify rectal evacuation after ileal pouch anal anastomosis with lesser radiation exposure compared to barium proctography. Dynamic MRI visualizes anorectal and pelvic floor motion during rectal evacuation without radiation exposure.4

Introduction To Waves

Waves in diagnostic ultrasound carry the information about the body back to the imaging system. Both elastic and electromagnetic waves can be found in imaging systems. How waves propagate through and interact with tissue will be discussed in several chapters, beginning with this one. This chapter also introduces powerful matrix methods for describing the complicated transmission and reflection of plane waves through several layers of homogeneous tissue. It first examines the properties of

Behavioral significance of electrosensation

Electroreception comes in two types, passive and active. The passive sense takes advantage of the electric fields generated by living organisms or, as has been shown in sharks, the electromagnetic field of the earth (e.g., 63 ). Unlike passive electrosen-sation and most other sensory modalities, active electrosensation relies on signals originating from the animal itself. The fish generates an electric field through discharge of an electric organ extending along most of the caudal part of its body (Figure 8.3). The Gymnotiformes are one of two groups of teleosts that independently evolved active electrosensing 88 . Fish of the two Gymnotiform genera treated here, Eigenmannia and Apteronotus, produce a quasi-sinusoidal electric organ discharge (EOD) waveform with frequencies between 200 and 1200 Hz, the exact range being species-specific.

Studies in MS and Other Conditions

Hyperbaric oxygen is an accepted therapy for a limited number of specific medical conditions. For example, it is an effective treatment for burns and severe infections. Other rare uses included decompression sickness (as a result of deep-sea diving), carbon monoxide poisoning, air bubbles in the blood stream caused by medical procedures, and tissue injury caused by radiation exposure.

MMagnets and Electromagnetic Therapy

The use of magnets and electromagnetic fields is a type of energy medicine. Magnets and electricity have been used for medicinal purposes for thousands of years. They were used in ancient China to stimulate acupuncture sites. In the eleventh and twelfth centuries, it was claimed that lodestones, minerals with natural magnetic qualities, relieved a variety of medical conditions. Paracelsus, a sixteenth-century Swiss physician and alchemist, used magnets to treat seizures. In the eighteenth century, Franz Mesmer, an Austrian physician, proposed a theory of animal magnetism and wrote a book on the subject, On the Medicinal Uses of the Magnet. It was later found that his therapy was based on hypnotism (see the chapter on Hypnosis), not on any therapeutic effects of magnets. A large number of magnetic and electrical devices were promoted during the nineteenth century, which is sometimes referred to as the golden age of medical electricity. These devices included magnetic insoles, belts,...

H2 Anatomy and physiology of the visual pathway

The visual pathway, highlighting the points where vision neuroprosthe-ses have been or could be implemented is shown schematically in Figure 11.1. Light entering the eye falls upon the retina, located at the back surface of the eye. Here, photoreceptor neurons convert the electromagnetic energy of the light into electrochemical signals. This is the first stage of a series of

System Change Control

Clearly, it is important to keep track of and document changes to automated systems just as scientists document changes in work they perform manually. Records should be kept of the software and hardware used during specific projects or during a specific time frame. Systems with open software allow annotations to be written, dated, and initialed directly in the text by appropriate personnel. Software may be stored in electronic and or printed form and should be stored in a location that is safe from chemical hazards and electromagnetic radiation . Hardware configurations may be stored as drawings, lists of components, photographs, and videotapes. These records should be documented and archived in a manner and according to a schedule that is appropriate to the needs and practices of the laboratory and the analytical application. Instrument logbooks are commonly used to document, store, and archive these records.

The Interaction of Xrays with Crystals

As shown by von Laue's ingenious experiment, x-rays are electromagnetic waves of high energy (or short wavelength). Waves have both amplitude and phase, important concepts for understanding x-ray crystallography (Figure 3). X-rays are scattered by electrons other diffraction phenomena important for the biosciences are neutron crystallography (neutrons are scattered by atomic nuclei, i.e., by neutrons and protons) and electron crystallography (electrons are scattered by the charge distribution, i.e., by electrons and protons). X-ray diffraction is by far the most established of these techniques, and many procedures in x-ray crystallography have become more or less routine.

The Generation of Xrays

X-rays are generated when charged particles interact with an electromagnetic field. For the purposes of x-ray crystallography, x-ray generation is provided by the acceleration of electrons. The first x-ray tubes involved a heated cathode and an anode sealed in a vacuum. Electrons generated at the cathode are accelerated toward the anode target the ensuing deceleration in the target gives rise to a continuum of x-rays ('white radiation', also known as Bremsstrahlung) (Figure 12). The minimum wavelength as well as the intensity distribution of the rays is dependent upon the accelerating voltage. In addition, a series of intense spectral lines is superimposed upon the 'white' background that is characteristic of the nature of the anode target used. These lines correspond to the excitation of inner electrons in the target by bombarding electrons of sufficient energy relaxation of the excited electrons back to their ground state results in quantized x-ray production of defined wavelength....

Disadvantages of CTE and Pitfalls

Radiation doses related to CT enteroclysis remain a significant issue. The use of a multidetector CT with 40 or more channels can reduce radiation by 10-66 24 . This is because of a more efficient detector configuration, automatic exposure controls, improved filters and image post processing algorithms. MR enteroclysis has the advantage of lack of radiation exposure and safer contrast agents, but appears to be less accurate than CT en-teroclysis. In a prospective comparison between MR en-teroclysis and CT enteroclysis, the latter showed greater sensitivity and interobserver agreement for an array of pathological signs of small bowel diseases 25 .

Standards For Protection Against Electrical Shock

In general, safety regulations for medical equipment address the risks of electric shock, fire, burns, or tissue damage due to contact with high-energy sources, exposure to ionizing radiation, physical injury due to mechanical hazards, and malfunction due to electromagnetic interference or electrostatic discharge. The most significant technical standard is IEC-601, Medical Electrical Equipment, adopted by Europe as EN-60601, which has been harmonized with UL Standard 2601-1 for the United States, CAN CSA-C22.2 601.1 for Canada, and AS3200.1 and NZS6150 for Australia and New Zealand, respectively.

Treatment Approaches for Children

For children less than 5 years of age, we consider antithyroid medications as a first line therapy. Although radioactive iodine has also been successfully used in this age group without an apparent increase in cancer rates, it may be best to defer radioactive iodine therapy because of the possible increased risks of thyroid cancer after radiation exposure in very young children in the event that any thyroid tissue remains after radioactive iodine therapy.

Scintillation Proximity Assay SPA Technology to Study Biomolecular Interactions

When a radioactive atom decays, it releases subatomic particles (e.g., (-particles), and depending upon the isotope, various forms of electromagnetic radiation (e.g., y-rays). The distance these particles travel through aqueous solutions is limited and is dependent upon the energy of the particle SPA exploits this limitation. For example, when a tritium atom (3H) decays it releases a (-particle. If the 3H atom is within 1.5 m of a suitable scintillant molecule in aqueous solution, the energy of the (-particle will be sufficient to reach the scintillant and excite it to emit light. If the distance between the scintillant and the 3H atom is greater than 1.5 m, then the (-particles will not have sufficient energy to travel the required distance (see Figure 19.8.1). In an aqueous solution, collisions with water molecules dissipate the (-particle energy and it therefore cannot stimulate the scintillant. Normally, the addition of a scintillation cocktail to radioactive samples ensures that...

Radiographic Examination

Radiographs provide essential information to supplement the clinical examination. Detailed knowledge of the extent of bone support and the root morphology of each standing tooth is essential to establishing a comprehensive fixed prosthodontic treatment plan. Although radiation exposure guide the most information with a minimal need for repeat films and by using appropriate protection. The use of digital radiography can further help reduce radiation exposure.

Extrachromosomal DNAs for Mosaic Analysis

There are two types of extrachromosomal DNA that are suitable for mosaic analysis in C. elegans genetic duplications and transgenic arrays. Most extrachromosomal duplications (more commonly referred to as free duplications to distinguish them from genetic duplications that have become attached to one of the six chromosomes) have been isolated following treatments with ionizing radiation. To date, approximately one half of the genome has been duplicated, making it likely that a gene of interest will be present on one or more of the many free duplications (3,5,12). Although here we shall be more concerned with transgenic arrays, free duplications can have some advantages for mosaic analysis (3). Furthermore, methods are available to add desired genes to existing free duplications or to fuse two separate duplications (3). Thus, an analysis need not be limited to the genes present on a particular duplication. The significance of this flexibility will become more apparent in the section...

Intermezzo Example

Inaccurate response parameters may also dilute the association between a risk factor and a disease and thus decrease the sensitivity of epidemiological methods. This can be best illustrated by studies on the association between radiation exposure and leukemia. A substantial risk increase could have escaped observation in epidemiological studies, if all types of leukemia had been combined. Only by studying the various types of leukemia individually, the association between exposure and acute nonlymphatic leukemia was revealed.

Retinal anatomy and physiology

Retinal Anatomy

The retina has a laminar neural organization, a highly simplified view of which is presented in Figure 11.3. This organization consists of three nuclear layers (layers of neuronal cell bodies) separated by two plexiform layers (layers of synaptic connections). An inner and outer limiting membrane as well as an outer epithelial layer surround the neural retina. As the photore-ceptors are located in the outermost nuclear layer in humans, the description logically starts with the outermost layer. The retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) is not properly part of the neural retina but bears discussion due to its association with pathologies of the retina. This layer provides critical nutrients to the photoreceptors as well as phagocytosis of the exhausted components of the photoreceptors that are shed on a daily basis. The outer nuclear layer (ONL) consists of the photoreceptor neurons that convert light's electromagnetic energy into electrochemical energy. In humans, there are two...

Dermatologic Physical Exam

VV with rapid growth and formation of a cutaneous horn may mimic SCC. Again, the latter has a more indurated base. Biopsy may be needed to distinguish the lesions, especially those involving the nail bed. Any refractory lesion in this location should be promptly referred, especially when there is a history of radiation exposure.

Molecular Mechanisms in the Activation of Apoptotic and Antiapoptotic Pathways by Ceramide

Antigen,29-33 antibody crosslinking,34,35 and ionizing radiation.22,26,39 Second, the kinetics of ceramide accumulation correlates closely with the kinetics of apoptosis induced by these agents.36 Finally, exogenous ceramide mimics the ability of the aforementioned agents to induce apoptosis in hematopoietic cells,23,37 fibroblasts,25,38 lung endothelium,39 pheochromocytoma cells,40 and oligodendroglial cells.28,41 Numerous cell culture studies have identified that sphingomyelinase (SMase) activity is increased following stimulation with TNF,14 FAS antigen,293345 ionizing radiation,39 and chemotherapeutics.1718 SMase is a type of phospholipase C which cleaves phosphocholine from SM generating ceramide (Figure 7.1). Further, at least two types of SMases have been implicated in generating a bioactive pool of ceramide. These enzymes can be readily distinguished, based upon their neutral or acidic pH optima for activity. Of these two enzymes, the gene encoding for acid SMase has been...

The Molecular Biology of Cellular Aging

An important unifying principle that may explain many of these observations is the telomere hypothesis of cell aging and immortalization.34,35 This model proposes that differentiated somatic cells such as fibroblasts lack the enzyme telomerase. As a result, each round of cell division results in a loss of DNA from the lagging strand of the 3' linear end, perhaps due to the end replication problem. This is in line with numerous reports that cultured mortal cells lose telomeric DNA at a rate of about 50-200bp per cell doubling.36 When perhaps only a single chromosome end has lost repeat sequences, the cell may detect a linear DNA end that is indistinguishable from a double strand break. As a result, the cell may exit the cell cycle in a DNA damage checkpoint arrest, similar to that seen in cells exposed to ionizing radiation.37 This arrest is dependent on p53 and is designated Mortality-1 (M1).38 Genotoxic stress induces a unique pattern of gene expression that induces intracellular...

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Differential Diagnosis For Lymphocytosis

INTRODUCTION Squamous cell carcinoma is a malignant tumor that most commonly affects elderly, fair-skinned individuals. It arises from keratinocytes of the epidermis. Unlike the more common basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma tends to arise in precancerous areas of skin alteration or in areas of skin damaged by chronic sun exposure, ionizing radiation, carcinogens (e.g., arsenic), psoralen plus ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy for psoriasis, and the human papilloma virus. Intrinsic factors that may contribute to its development include xeroderma pigmentosum, oculocutaneous albinism, and immunodeficiency. Chronic skin dermatoses, inflammation, ulceration, and contracted scars also are associated with the development of this tumor. In fact, scarring of the skin is the most common intrinsic factor leading to this tumor in black patients. Lymphatic spread and perineural invasion are possible.

Noninfective Osteitides

Noninfective osteitides are nonspecific inflammatory diseases of bone not caused by an infection. The causes are obscure and indeterminate except in radiation osteitis that results from ionizing radiation. Histologically, they are characterized by inflammatory bony proliferation and sclerosis. For the sake of scinti-graphic description, the following diseases are dealt with under the heading of noninfective osteitides osteitis condensans ilii, osteitis pubis, condensing osteitis of the clavicle, cos-tosternoclavicular hyperostosis, Caffey's infantile cortical hyperostosis, Paget's disease of bone (osteitis deformans), and odontogenous osteitis. Radiation osteitis is also included in this category because it is also a nonspecific inflammatory disease with common radiographic and scintigraphic findings.

Post 131I Cancer Risks

The thyroid gland is unique in its developmental sensitivity to malignancy following radiation exposure. Individuals older than 20 years of age do not have an increased risk of thyroid cancer when exposed to low-level thyroid irradiation 71-73 . Yet, when individuals are less than 20 years of age at the time of low-level thyroid irradiation, the thyroid cancer risks increases the younger one is 71-73 . Radiation exposure of the gonads during 131I therapy approximates 2.5 cGy, which is comparable to the gonadal exposure from a barium enema or an intravenous pyelogram 80 . The literature contains data on 500 offspring born to approximately 370 subjects treated with 131I for hyperthyroidism during childhood and adolescence 6 . The incidence of congenital anomalies reported among the offspring of patients treated with radioiodine does not differ from the incidence in the general population. In addition, there was no increased prevalence of congenital anomalies in the offspring of 77...

Soft Xray Orthovolt Radiotherapy

X-rays are electromagnetic radiations of high energy. When x-rays are used to treat superficial lesions, the energy spectrum of the x-ray beam is adjusted by selecting an appropriate combination of x-ray tube filtration and voltage, which is 30-100 kV (soft x-rays) in dermatology settings. Treatment of localized lesions and teleroentgen therapy with soft x-rays are two different approaches. Ionizing radiation induces free active radicals in the tissue and hits DNA by doublestrand breaks. It has an impact on many functions such as enzyme activity, cell membrane permeability, and protein synthesis, finally resulting in the loss of reproductive integrity of the cells. Early plaques and tumors in cutaneous lymphomas are highly radiosensitive and respond to low doses of ionizing radiation (31), provided that the half-value depth corresponds to the depth of infiltration, which in nontumoral stages of CTCL is usually a few millimeters in and beneath the epidermis.

Light Scattering Techniques

When the light impinges on a particle, its electrons are subjected to a force in one direction and its nuclei to a force in the opposite direction, causing the electrons about the particle to oscillate in synchrony with the electric field of the incident light. Thus, an oscillating dipole is induced in the particle by the incident light. This oscillating dipole becomes a source of electromagnetic radiation, reradiating light at the same wavelength of the incident light and in all directions. This radiation from the particle is called scattered light. The theories of light scattering can be divided into three different regimes, depending on the relation between the particle size and the wavelength of the incident light (X). In 1871 Rayleigh developed a theory for light scattering by a very small dielectric sphere 107,108 . When the dimensions of the particle are much smaller than the wavelength of the incident light (diameter < 0.1X), then the entire parti

Dental History

Previous radiographs may prove helpful in judging the progress of dental disease. They should be obtained if possible, because it is generally better to avoid exposing the patient to unnecessary ionizing radiation. Dental practices will usually forward radiographs or acceptable duplicates promptly upon request. In most instances, however, a current diagnostic radiographic series is essential and should be obtained as part of the examination.

Idkd 2006

Arterial Blush Spleen

Approximately 3 minutes after the initial IVCM injection, or during the pyelographic phase. Delayed imaging is not performed if no significant injury is detected, thereby reducing radiation exposure for these patients. If immediate review of the initial scan is not an option based on radiologist's availability, or if the incidence of injury is high among a given institution's trauma population, routine acquisition of a delayed scan in every patient may prove a more efficient means of operating procedure. An unen-hanced CT is performed in patients with known renal insufficiency or severe contrast allergy, though sensitivity for detecting injury is reduced.

Data Acquisition

Over the past decade, there have been three important advances in CTC data acquisition, including reduction in radiation exposure, improved CT slice profile, and shorter acquisition times. These advances have been facilitated by the development and installation of multi-detector row CT scanners. The scanners allow four to 64 slices to be obtained in a single rotation of the X-ray tube. Moreover, gantry rotation times have decreased so that The optimal slice profile for CTC has not been determined, but it is likely that data acquired with thin sections, approximately 1 mm, will improve sensitivity for small polyps and specificity. Using a four-row scanner, a 1-1.25 mm detector configuration is recommended. Others have advocated a 4 x 2.5 mm detector configuration 12 . There are two benefits of the 2.5 mm detector configuration. First, the mAs can be lowered and there is an inherent decrease in radiation exposure at 2.5 mm, when compared to 1 mm collimation on a four-row detector...

Axr Malrotation

Necrotizing Enterocolitis

(i) Sonography Ultrasound (US) has come to play an increasingly important role in the management of children with acute abdominal pain, and has replaced the plain abdominal radiograph as the initial modality of choice in many clinical situations. The major advantages of US are that it does not utilize ionizing radiation, it is relatively inexpensive and the abdominal viscera including the bowel can be well-delineated. This allows the confirmation or exclusion of many pathological entities.

Radiation Dose

When considering an imaging examination that utilizes ionizing radiation for screening, exposure is a serious concern. Radiation dose can be decreased at CT by increasing pitch and slice collimation or by decreasing the kVp or mAs. Absorbed dose and mAs values are directly proportional. Since there is extremely high tissue contrast between insufflated gas and the colonic wall, substantial reductions in mAs can be obtained without sacrificing polyp detection. The increased noise resulting from acquisitions acquired with low mAs techniques does not appear to affect polyp detection. In 2002, a study comparing CTC to colonoscopy in 105 patients showed that the sensitivity of CTC in detecting 10 mm polyps was less than 90 using an effective mAs value of 50 13 . The resultant effective dose for the patient in both supine and prone imaging was 5.0 mSv for men and 7.8 mSv for women. The effective dose utilizing this technique is similar to the dose reported for a DCBE. Since that publication,...

Human Carcinogens

Hormones Estrogens (diethyl stilbesterol), anabolic steroids. Plastics Vinyl chloride monomer, aryl acrylates. Heavy metals Arsenic, chromium, nickel. Ionizing radiation Radon, x-rays. Nonionizing radiation Ultraviolet light. Miscellaneous drugs Chloramphenicol, phenytoin. Industrial exposures Arsenic, asbestos, cadmium, chromium, nickel, silica.

Preoperative Imaging

Although there is wide agreement among physicians about the use of CT scanning as the technique of choice, there is little agreement as to which patients should receive preoperative imaging. Some surgeons believe that all individuals scheduled for tympanomastoid surgery should have CT imaging preoper-atively. These physicians believe that useful information is obtained in every circumstance consequently, the expense and radiation exposure are always justified. Other surgeons reserve preoperative imaging for special cases and are quite comfortable performing surgery without preoperative imaging in most patients with cholesteatoma. The following special cases would qualify for CT scans

Unit 1011

Autoradiography is a radioisotope-detec-tion method that records the spatial distribution of radioisotope-labeled substances within a membrane or specimen material. The ionizing radiation (usually P particles) that is emitted from the radioisotope interacts with the silver halide grains within the emulsion of the photographic film, forming a latent image. The latent image is amplified by the action of the developer during processing, thus creating a visible image. The pattern and density of the image are used to locate and quantify the radioactive distribution. Commercially available autoradiography films are best suited for autoradiography because of their high sensitivity to both light and ionizing radiation. Autoradiography films generally yield higher-contrast images with a shorter exposure time than medical X-ray films and other commercially available photographic films.

Treatment Method

Magnets and electricity have many unconventional uses. Two types of electromagnetic therapy usually are considered for MS. One type of therapy, known as static magnetic therapy, uses magnets that are available as bracelets, belts, and even large mats that may be placed on a bed. The other form of therapy, known as pulsed electromagnetic field therapy, uses devices that produce pulsing magnetic fields at a specific frequency. The pulsing magnetic fields usually are weak, but some studies have used strong fields.

Multiplicity

The multiplicity of a FISH procedure is defined as the number of DNA targets that can be distinguished on the basis of optical properties, usually fluorescence color. In the simplest application of multiplicity, different fluoro-chromes that are spectrally well separated are attached to separate probes either directly or indirectly. For the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum, blue, green, and red fluorescent dyes are available, permitting a multiplicity of 3 for visual observation of FISH results (Nederlof et al., 1989). When imaging devices sensitive to infrared light rays are used, for example a CCD camera with light integration capabilities, multiplicity can be increased to 4 or 5. When the targets are spatially separated, as in well-spread metaphase chromosomes, multiplicity can be increased by combinatorial labeling of the targets (Nederlof et al., 1990 Ried et al., 1992a Wiegant et al., 1993 unit 8.3). Here multiplicity is 2n - 1, where n is the number of spectrally...

ABCD Matrices

Extremely useful tools for describing both acoustic and electromagnetic waves in terms of building blocks are matrices (Matthaei et al., 1980). In particular, the ABCD matrix form (Sittig, 1967) is shown in Figure 3.3 for the electrical case and is given by the following equations

Evaluation

Cancer manifesting as cervical lymphadenopathy will be discovered in the upper aerodigestive tract in about 70 of cases.1 Obviously, the evaluation for the primary should initially focus on this region until other diagnostic information suggests the primary is elsewhere. Specific historic information should be gathered for every patient who has an undiagnosed neck mass suspected to be malignant. Features such as absence of tenderness and progressive enlargement, particularly in a patient with a history of tobacco use or excessive alcohol use, are associated with a higher probability of malignancy. Further questioning about hoarseness, dysphagia, odynophagia, epistaxis, or nasal obstruction may help identify a head and neck primary site. A history of prior malignancy, including skin cancer of the head and neck or removal of pigmented lesions, should be noted. A history of prior head and neck radiation exposure should be elicited. A system review should investigate any gastrointestinal,...

Description Of Light

Scientifically, light is described as visible electromagnetic energy whose wavelength is measured in nanometers (nm) or billionths of a meter. The eye is sensitive only to the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum, a narrow band with wavelengths of 380 to 750 nm. At the shorter wavelengths lie ultraviolet x, and gamma rays at the longer wavelengths are infrared radiation, microwaves, and television and radio transmissions (Fig. 23-1). Pure white light consists of relatively equal quantities of electromagnetic energy over the visible range. When it is passed through a prism (Fig. 23-2), it is split into its component colors because the longer wavelengths are bent (refracted) less than the shorter ones.

Vout Comm

Presented in the schematic circuits of Figures 2.7 through 2.12. In this design, biopotential signals are amplified by IC5, a Burr-Brown INA128U instrumentation amplifier. Its gain is fixed at 138 through resistor R7. The input of the amplifier is protected from high-voltage transients and electrosurgery currents by a network of resistors, capacitors, and diodes. Back-to-back zener diodes D2 and D4 clamp high-voltage transients induced into the electrodes by defibrillation currents to a level that can be handled by the rest of the protection network. C21 acts as a shunt for radio-frequency currents that may be induced into the electrodes and leads by sources of electromagnetic interference. This capacitor by itself has inherent filtering capability for high-frequency alternating current because capacitive reactance XC (in ohms) is inversely proportional to frequency

Colonic Scintigraphy

More recently, radioscintigraphy has been used to provide a more detailed assessment of overall and regional colonic transit with an acceptable radiation exposure. Two approaches have been used. advance that allowed for a more detailed and dynamic assessment of colonic transit, previously impossible using radiopaque markers because the radiation exposure does not increase with the number of gamma camera scans taken, multiple images can be taken at defined time intervals. However, the need for orocecal intubation renders such a method much less applicable in clinical practice. An alternative approach involves cecal intubation via colonoscopy however, the latter requires emptying of the colon and, hence, transit tests obtained after colonoscopic intubation may not mimic physiologic conditions.

Basal Cell Carcinoma

Chalazion Canthus

INTRODUCTION Basal cell carcinoma is a malignant tumor derived from cells of the basal layer of the epidermis. It represents the most common malignant tumor of the eyelids, comprising 85-90 of all malignant epithelial eyelid tumors. The etiology of basal cell carcinomas is linked to excessive ultraviolet light exposure in fair-skinned individuals. Several types of basal cell carcinoma can occur on the eyelids. The nodular-type is the most common, followed by the mor-phea variety. Over 99 of basal cell carcinomas occur in Caucasians. They are seen typically in middle aged and elderly adults, but are more frequently being seen in younger adults, and several cases have been reported in children without pre-existing genetic syndrome or a history of radiotherapy. Predisposing factors include ionizing radiation, arsenic exposure, and pre-existing scars. Having had one basal cell carcinoma is risk for the development of additional lesions. While metastases are rare (0.028-0.55 ), local...

Dipole Antenna

Figure 6.30 A torso simulator model for electromagnetic interference studies can be constructed using some white louver light grid (used in fluorescent lamp assemblies) and a 28-qt under-bed plastic box. Tissue properties are simulated using 0.027 M saline solution. Four electrodes on the sides of the box are used to monitor operation of the implanted device as well as to inject simulated intracardiac electrogram signals. The saline solution should be prepared to the proportions recommended by ANSI AAMI PC69 2000, Table 2 0.027 M 1.8g L or 0.18 NaCl concentration at 21 C. To do so, the salt is first dried in an oven set at 200 C for 30 minutes. Then 30.6 g of dry salt can be added to 17 L of distilled water to make enough solution with a concentration of 1.8 g L. Submersion in a conducting fluid facilitates monitoring of the implantable medical device's operation while minimizing the electromagnetic field distortion and detection effects of directly attached probes. Monitoring of the...

MRI in Obstetrics

MR pelvimetry is indicated in pregnant women with a history of pelvic trauma, previous cesarean section, or in women who desire a trial of labor when the fetus is in breech presentation. The use of X-ray pelvimetry has decreased steadily in recent years. MRI offers the benefit of accurate measurement of the maternal pelvic dimensions without exposure to ionizing radiation.

Epidemiology

Thyroid cancer incidence rates decreased when external neck irradiation for benign conditions was abandoned in view of its recognized causal relationship 8 . The second peak occurred in the early 1990s caused by environmental contamination with radioactive iodine from the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant catastrophe, reaching its maximum in the mid 1990s 9 . Thyroid cancer developed mainly in children < 5 years at exposure, with onset before the age of 14 years. Girls were at greater risk than boys, with a 30-fold increase of thyroid cancer. Others also observed that children under 5 years of age at the time of exposure are the most vulnerable to the effects of ionizing radiation, girls more so than boys 10 . This may be due to age- and sex-related differences in metabolic activity of the thyroid gland follicles less than 100 xm in size are presumably active and more prevalent in children < 12 years old, whereas follicles > 200 xm considered to be...

Xirradiation

The results in experimental animals have not always been consistent with the effects of radiation exposure in the human neonatal population. For example, alterations in peripheral lymphocyte counts and lymphoproliferative responses were found to persist in adults irradiated in infancy for thymus enlargement (Reddy et al. 1976). In additional experiments, low-dose irradiation of adult mice has been shown to alter T cell mediated immunologic responses in what appears to be selective killing of sensitive T-lymphocyte subpopulations (Anderson et al. 1982). Such T cells are generated in large numbers near birth in rodents (Ptak and Skorwon-Cendrzak 1977) and during late gestation in humans (Hayward and Kurnick 1981), suggesting that T-lymphocytes may be particularly sensitive to radiation exposure during certain periods of maturation. In a study designed to examine the effects of ionizing radiation administered during this sensitive period of T cell development, Miller and Benjamin (1985)...

Definitions

Nonionizing radiation Long wavelength, low frequency, low energy form. Examples ultraviolet rays, visible rays, infrared rays, radio waves, microwaves, lasers, ultrasound, NMR systems. Ionizing radiation Short wavelength, high frequency, high energy forms. Emitted from unstable forms of elements called radioisotopes. Examples x-rays and gamma rays. Half-life Period of time it takes for a radioisotope to lose half of its radioactivity. Isotope A variation of an element with a different number of neutrons in the nucleus. All isotopes of an element have the same number of protons differing neutrons give isotopes of the same element different atomic weights. Decay (disintegration) Unstable isotopes spontaneously transform in order to reach a more stable configuration may involve the release of ionizing radiation. Radioisotope Isotope that releases ionizing radiation during its decay.

Radionuclide Imaging

The use of 131I for routine thyroid scintigraphy is discouraged because the radiation dose is about 100 times greater than that of 123I. Based on low cost, availability and an even lower radiation dose, technetium (99mTc) pertecnetate is an attractive alternative to 123I and consequently recommended for routine thyroid imaging by authorities in most European countries. 99mTc is administered intravenously, and uptake and scan are obtained after 15-20 min. In children the radiation exposure to the gland is three- to fivefold higher than in adults.

Ultrasonography

It is important to remember that thyroid scintigraphy (imaging providing information on functionality and to some degree anatomy) and sonography (providing information on morphology and anatomy) are complementary imaging modalities. Based on the lack of prospective comparative studies in childhood thyroid disease, indications for each will often be based on local traditions and nuclear medicine and radiology facilities and expertise. The evasion of ionizing radiation and sedation, in addition to a short examination time and wide availability, makes ultrasound an ideal initial examination in children 36 . Sonography will provide valuable diagnostic information in a number of

UVA1 Therapy

The UV spectrum of electromagnetic radiation comprises UVB (280-315 nm) and UVA (315-400 nm) light. UVA constitutes the majority (90 -95 ) of UV radiation on the earth's surface (Gasparro 2000, McGrath 1994). The biological, immunologic, and photochemical effects of both wavelengths seem divergent and partly opposing. LE-aggravating properties seem to be mainly attributable to UVB and the shorter part of UVA (UVA2,315-340 nm). In contrast, UVA1 (340-400nm) demonstrates the greatest efficacy in the treatment of LE. In this respect, LE may be attributed to other photodermatoses in which UV irradiation can be used for prophylaxis and treatment. Consequently, several studies have been published recently that document beneficial effects of UVA1 on both CLE and SLE (McGrath 1994,1997,1999, McGrath et al. 1996, Molina and McGrath 1997, Sonnichsen et al. 1993). Disease activity, therapeutic drug use, and anti-double-stranded DNA titers in SLE were shown to decrease after a 3-week course of...

Phosphor Imaging

Phosphor imaging screens are composed of crystals of BaFBr Eu+2. When the screen is exposed to ionizing radiation such as a, p, or y radiation, or wavelengths of light shorter than 380 nm, the electrons from Eu+2 are excited and then trapped in an F-center of the BaFBr- complex this results in the oxidation of Eu+2 to Eu+3, which forms the latent image on the screen. After exposure, the latent image is released by scanning the screen with a laser (633 nm). During scanning, Eu3+ reverts back to Eu+2, releasing a photon at 390 nm. The luminescence can then be collected and measured in relation to the position of the scanning laser beam. The result is a representation of the latent image on the storage phosphor imaging plates. The image can then be viewed on a video monitor and analyzed with the aid of appropriate software.

Mycosis Fungoides

Dry Eyes Lupus

TREATMENT Current forms of therapy include topical corticosteroids, systemic chemotherapy, ionizing radiation (x-ray or electron beam), and ultraviolet light with or without psoralen (PUVA). Both topical and systemic steroids are frequently of benefit. Superinfections, viral, bacterial, or fungal, should be watched for and treated appropriately. Eyelid necrosis and ectropion are repaired with standard eyelid reconstructive techniques.

Newer Methods

This method seems attractive in that there is no ionizing radiation, images can be collected as often as necessary, and other disease processes such as neoplasia can be detected however, cost may represent a major limitation. Furthermore, the clinical utility of the proposed method remains to be proven with large number of subjects. This method has not been either standardized or validated for research and clinical practice. This is an attractive, noninvasive method to measure gastrointestinal transit without the risk of radiation exposure. However, it requires a stable magnetic environment, and any heavy metal can disturb the magnetic field. This method requires presence in the lab for the entire duration of the test, and any movement, even breathing, of the subject can interfere with the trajectory of the magnet and cause artifacts. This method is at a preliminary stage and has not been standardized or validated. The advantages of the breath test are that it is noninvasive, there is...

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