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However, it is not possible to accept that there are purely natural disasters, since the human hand is always present. This is the thesis of Steinberg 13 , who studied a large series of disasters in the USA. It has to be taken into account that the degree of development of a community is a determinant fact. Between 1960 and 1987, 41 out of the 109 worst natural disasters took place in developing countries, with the death of 758,850 persons, while the remaining 59 of disasters took place in developed countries, with the death of 11,441 persons 14 . It is curious enough that these proportions are similar to those in famine, HIV infection or refugee status 15 .
The events identified as key to review when examining for the presence of traumatic events include war-zone stressors, sexual assault in childhood or adulthood, robberies, accidents, technological disasters, natural disasters or hazardous exposures, sudden death of a loved one, life-threatening illnesses, and witnessing or experiencing violence. In general, the committee recommended that in depth questions need to be asked about event occurrences, perceived life threat, harm, injuries, frequency, duration, and age.
The tubers are cigar-shaped, with a brown, often pinkish, rind that is usually hairy, with ivory-white flesh. They vary considerably in size, but are typically 10 inches (25 cm) long and 2 inches (5 cm) thick and are borne in clusters of up to ten. Selection of plants for cultivation would have been directed at reducing cyanogenic glucosides, which liberate toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) by enzymic breakdown. The reaction speeds up after the tubers have been cut, but toxicity can be removed by cooking or, more effectively, by grating and drying. They can be divided into two main groups based on the glucoside content of the central part of the storage roots bitter and sweet . However, this distinction is unjustified because all kinds of intermediates occur. Cultivation and domestication since ancient times has resulted in an enormous number of cultivars. A particular advantage of cassava is that its roots can be left in the ground for up to three years without deteriorating, making it a...
Also known as Polynesian arrowroot, the species is a pan-Pacific cultigen, believed to have originated in Malesia. It is now widely distributed wild and cultivated in Africa, the Indian subcontinent, and islands of the Indian Ocean and Australia. The starchy tubers traditionally provided an important staple food. The bitter compounds are removed by repeated soaking in fresh water, and the starch is extracted and used to make cakes, as a thickener in foods, and for starching clothes. At present, its cultivation is declining. It has lost its role as a staple food (cassava has largely replaced East Indian arrowroot) and is mainly consumed as an emergency food.
Since data protection, in real life, is therefore always limited or compromised, additional measures are needed to protect the individual from disadvantages based on his or her data. Thus, personal protection, in addition to data protection, must be provided. This requires a framework of regulations or laws that govern the use of 'personal medical information' - the latter term is preferred to restricting such protection to DNA-derived data because many 'conventional' medical data carry similar or larger information content, particularly in the area of common complex disease. Such a framework can, in democratically governed systems, only arise as a consensus among all stakeholders involved - among them patients, physicians, insurers, and employers - that represents the optimal compromise which maximizes the benefits for both the individual and society. Such a framework will define which uses of the information are endorsed by society as lawful, and which are shunned as illegal. Given...
The early disaster researchers Kinston and Rosser 18 suggested the term be used to describe ''massive collective stress''. Norris 19 suggested that these are events in which there are ''violent encounters with nature, technology or human kind''. Arising out of these definitions, various typologies of disaster have been proposed. These focus on the differentiation of the type of determinants of the destruction. While there is logic to the separation of destructive acts of nature from man-made disasters such as industrial accidents, the differences in terms of the outcomes are not substantial 12 . There has been some interest in separating the effects of man-made acts where there is the potential for malevolence to play a role in contrast to natural disasters. However, these differentiations can be somewhat illusory. For example, arsonists or the careless use of machinery can cause forest fires. Failure to comply with construction codes can lead to the collapse of buildings in...
The threshold of exposure that is required for an individual to be included in a study is one of the issues that are difficult to determine in disaster studies. For instance, the commonsense idea that the trauma due to human negligence or error has a greater capacity to disrupt an individual's psychological assumptions than events such as hurricanes and floods does not appear to be substantiated by the objective evidence. However, this conclusion may be a consequence of differences in the thresholds of inclusion in these studies. Furthermore, the recourse to litigation in man-made disasters will generally result in a degree of financial compensation that is not available to the victims of natural disasters. It may be that adequate financial relief may provide a buffer against some of the negative effects of these events.
In 1988, the World Health Organization estimated that natural disasters had afflicted 26 million persons between 1900 and 1988. In that number, 10 million had been made homeless. A 1992 report by the International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies identified 7,766 disasters that had occurred in the world between 1967 and 1991, killing 7 million and affecting 3 trillion individuals 1 . Natural disasters predominantly afflict poor populations - 68 out of 109 natural disasters that occurred in the world between 1960 and 1987 concerned developing countries, and only 41 affluent countries. Furthermore, the casualty rate is higher when disasters happen in poor countries, as compared with richer countries, because of factors such as overcrowding in areas that are prone to natural (e.g., floodland) or industrial disasters (e.g., chemical plants).
A disaster strikes a whole community, causing types of collective behavior which cannot be reduced to the mere sum of instances of individual behavior. Collective behavior is influenced by a community's psychology, by the crowd's state of mind, and is characterized by its own specific features. After a disaster, collective behavior may be either adaptive or maladaptive.
Natural disasters, such as earthquakes, can concern many people, cover a wide area, and last a significant length of time. An erupting volcano may affect only a few hamlets, or completely destroy a large city, as was the case Technological and industrial disasters (train or plane crashes, sinking boats, explosions or fires in factories) are usually limited in space, which simplifies the organization of rescue operations. However, the Chernobyl radioactive cloud, in April 1986, threatened most of Europe. Disasters that are deliberately provoked by man (terrorist attacks, war bombings) are also usually limited in time and space, but the threat of recurrence may leave insecurity feelings in the population. Also, bombings of cities like Dresden, Tokyo, Hiroshima, and Nagasaki in World War II erased entire cities. Finally, society disasters, such as the panics in stadiums (Brussels, 29 April 1985 Sheffield, 15 April 1989) or at other places (the tunnel at Mecca, 1991) are generally limited...
More frequent harmful algal blooms (HABs) HABs are a result of global warming irrigation and wastewater runoff agricultural runoff (nitrogen-loading) + sewage runoff (sulfur-loading) + household detergent runoff (phosphorous-loading) + soil sediment (pesticides) more natural disasters hurricanes typhoons, earthquakes and increased trade and industrialization port docks seawalls ship ballast sewage. Coral reef destruction Filtering reefs are often damaged or destroyed by atmospheric and deep-sea nuclear warhead testing drag-net fishing methods and the pacific crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci (see Figure 13.2). Long-line commercial fishing High levels of scombrotoxins are produced in deep sea finfish (tuna, cobia, mahi mahi, wahoo) hooked and dying in warm water over 20+ hours.
CBT is the basis for this treatment, because it so directly meets the needs of first-stage treatment through its high degree of structure, focus on problem solving in the present, educational emphasis, and time-limited framework. Moreover, in outcome studies CBT has been found to be one of the most promising approaches for the treatment of each of the disorders (PTSD and substance abuse) when treated separately (Najavits et al., 1996). The cognitive domain of Seeking Safety addresses beliefs and meanings associated with PTSD and SUD and explores how to rethink these in an adaptive way. The behavioral domain addresses how to take concrete actions in one's life, such as taking good care of one's body. The interpersonal domain is an area of special need because most PTSD arises from trauma inflicted by others (e.g., in contrast to natural disasters or accidents Kessler et al., 1995). Whether the trauma involved childhood physical or sexual abuse, combat, or crime victimization, all have...
Treatingacute Stress Disorders An Evaluation Of Cognitive Behavior Therapy Andsupportive Counseling Technique.
Mark B.S., Layton A., Chesworth M. (1997) I'll Know What To Do A Kid's Guide to Natural Disasters. American Psychological Association, Washington, DC. 34. Mitchell J.T. (1983) When disaster strikes the critical incident stress debriefing process. J Emergency Med Serv, 8 35-39.
Hierarchy of vector control Genetic control physical control biological control chemical control personal protection. Genetic control Complex and expensive, 1 release of infertile and impotent males (hybrids, irradiated, or chemosterilized males) 2 lethal genomic reengineering (U.S. Naval Researchers and U.S. Army Researchers). Physical control Drainage landfills habitat changes decreased water flow, marsh impoundment to create deep ponds and lakes. Chemical control Oil spraying insecticides pyrethroids (deltamethrin, permethrin) Personal protection Pyrethroid-impregnated door and window blinds, coils, mats, nets, screens clothing body repellants (diethyltolu-amide DEET ) dimethylphthlate DIMP .
Debriefing has become increasingly popular as a treatment for victims of a wide range of traumatic events, from violent crime to natural disasters. In some circumstances and in certain occupations it has become mandatory. Organizations which routinely send their employees into potentially traumatizing situations are compelled to use it in order to protect the health of employees and minimize the impact of litigation seeking compensation.
Mental Health Protection In Disasters And Emergencies Lessons Learned In Latin America And The Caribbean
Experiences from Latin America and the Caribbean show that, even in countries with very few resources, the development of mental health services for disaster victims and disaster preparedness can be significantly improved if the right strategies are used. In the first phase, most of the support was provided or at least coordinated by international mental health teams sent to the site of the disaster. While this strategy has proved useful in meeting the immediate needs of the country, especially when well integrated in the larger relief plan, it has not helped the countries to prepare fully for future disasters. To meet this latter objective, additional strategies have been used in the past few years 9 . International cooperation also began to address new needs of the countries. A manual on mental health for victims of disasters and guidelines for trainers and professionals were recently published, with PAHO sponsorship 10,11 . In addition, in 2001 PAHO held two workshops on mental...
It was found that the country had no mental health plan for dealing with natural disasters. As a result, many institutions provided services to the same people in the area of the landslide. Not until 6 months after the catastrophe did organizations coordinate their efforts by organizing and dividing up responsibility for assistance 15 .
However, this phenomenon of mass deaths occurs not only in natural disasters or man-made accidents it is also a frequent problem in wars. Many Latin American countries in recent decades have experienced domestic armed conflicts characterized by massive human rights violations and indiscriminate massacres of civilians. In addition, most of these massacres have resulted from processes that also involved earlier psychological manipulation.
Canadian Centre for Emergency Preparedness http www.ccep.ca CDC, Emergency Preparedness and Response Branch, Emergency DHHS, Office of Emergency Preparedness (OEP) http ndms.dhhs.gov index.html DHHS, Office of Emergency Preparedness, National Disaster Medical DHHS, Office of Emergency Preparedness, Metropolitan Medical Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) http www.fema.gov
Research into psychiatric morbidity after a disaster is also necessary. Systematic screening of children and adults for PTSD can provide critical information for rational public mental health programs after a disaster. Early detection of post-traumatic reactions is important, since timely intervention may prevent poor adjustment and a chronic outcome. Research into psychiatric morbidity following disasters can provide a more general insight into the process of coping and the etiology and course of psychiatric illness in general. It also extends our knowledge and improves clinical care in this field of human distress. However, since trauma and disasters often strike suddenly and unexpectedly, we should be prepared before disaster strikes.
In general, human-made traumatic events (as opposed to natural disasters) have been shown to cause more frequent and more persistent psychiatric symptoms and distress (for review see 66). However, this distinction is increasingly difficult to make. The etiology and consequences of natural disasters often are affected by human beings. For example, the damage and loss of life caused by an earthquake can be magnified by poor construction practices and high-density occupancy. Similarly, humans may cause or contribute to natural disasters through poor land-management practices that increase the probability of floods. Interpersonal violence between individuals (assault) or groups (war, terrorism) is perhaps the most disturbing traumatic experience. Technological disasters may bring specific psychiatric concerns about normal life events - for example, fear of flying after a plane crash or claustrophobia after a mine accident. Each of these requires evaluation and intervention to treat the...
DSM-IV-TR classifies PTSD as an anxiety disorder with the major criteria of an extreme precipitating stressor, intrusive recollections, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal. Individuals at risk for PTSD include, but are not limited to, soldiers and victims of motor accidents, sexual abuse, violent crime, accidents, terrorist attacks, or natural disasters such as floods, earthquakes or hurricanes.7 PTSD has acute and chronic forms. In the general population, the lifetime prevalence of PTSD ranges from 1 to 12 and is frequently comorbid with anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder, and substance abuse disorders with a lifetime prevalence of comorbid disease ranging from 5 to 75 . PTSD is often a persistent and chronic disorder and a longitudinal study of adolescents and youth with PTSD showed that more than one-half of individuals with full DSM-IV-TR PTSD criteria at baseline remained symptomatic for more than 3 years and 50 of those individuals with subthreshold PTSD at baseline...
The main methods of vector prevention and control can be classified as personal protection environmental control campsite, shelter and food store sanitation community awareness and chemical control such as residual or space spraying, insecticide-treated traps, selective larviciding and the use of rodenticides. Vector control is very specific to the ecology of the vector, the epidemiology of the disease, the human and social environment as well as resources locally available (e.g. technical staff, structures, logistics). It is important to seek the advice of an entomologist environmental hygienist when designing a vector control programme. This person will assist by
(Fig. 27b), saphenous, and dorsal metatarsal veins vena cava, and orbital plexus. Specific nonsurvival techniques would include open thoracic and abdominal puncture of vasculature, the heart, and decapitation. Serial blood samples may be collected through the above survival techniques or through the use of indwelling jugular or femoral catheters.
The term childhood trauma encompasses a wide range of traumatic experiences, including exposure to community and domestic violence as well as natural disasters, automobile accidents, neglect, emotional abuse, physical abuse, and sexual abuse. Most of the literature on childhood trauma has focused on the impact and treatment of child sexual abuse and, to a lesser extent, on child physical abuse (Everett & Gallop, 2001). However, child abuse incidence and prevalence rates are difficult to determine due to state-by-state differences in reporting mechanisms and definitions. Furthermore, most abuse remains unreported, and many cases are never investigated. Because of these difficulties, the trend in the literature is to rely on retrospective surveys of adults reporting on their own childhood experiences. In a review of retrospective studies, Finkelhor (1994) found that approximately 20-25 of women and 5-15 of men in North America experienced some form of contact sexual abuse as children....
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Disaster Preparedness Kit
Don't get caught out in a disaster, be prepared for the unlikely. You just never know when disaster will strike, but if it does you will be more then prepared for it with the information this ebook gives you.