Signal Processing

The majority of the sEMG signal from the pelvic floor musculature is less than 100 hertz (Hz). The instrumentation should have the ability to filter noise interference allowing for a clear signal to be displayed. To detect the majority of the pelvic

Figure 13.3. The Orion platinum multimodality biofeedback system shows a typical display during a pelvic floor muscle (PFM) contraction. (Courtesy of SRS Medical, Redmond, WA.)

musculature signal, the instrumentation should have a wide bandwidth filter of 30 to 500 Hz. As the muscle fatigues, a shift to the lower frequencies (Hz) occurs; therefore, a wide bandwidth allows signal detection of low-amplitude contractions.9 A 60 Hz "notch" filter rejects power-line interference. As all electronic instrumentation has internally generated noise, it is important for the clinician to know the internal noise level in order to distinguish noise from the sEMG signal.

Figure 13.5. The multiple electrode probe (MEP) internal sensor. (Courtesy of SRS Medical, Redmond, WA. From Vickers D, Davila GW. Kegels and biofeedback. In: Davila GW, Ghoniem, GM, Wexner SD, eds. Pelvic Floor Dysfunction: A Multidisciplinary Approach. London: Springer-Verlag, 2006:303-310.)

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