Homemade Organic Fertilizer Recipe
The plant is an erect annual herb, bearing its fruits in clusters. The fruits are three-sided, dark-brown nutlets. Buckwheat is particularly well adapted to cold climates and poor, light soils. Its cultivation in Europe began to decline with the introduction of fertilizers in the early 20th century, because other cereals respond better to increased soil fertility. However increasing interest in health foods has led to a revival of interest in buckwheat in the West. Cultivation remains important in Brittany because of the use of buckwheat flour in local savory pancakes known as galettes. The best-known buckwheat dish is kasha, an eastern European and Russian porridge made from cooked grains. In Japan buckwheat noodles are known as soba. Tartary buckwheat (F. tataricum) is an uncommon grain crop of Siberia.
The exact origin of arrowroot is unknown, but it is indigenous to Central America and northern South America. The distinctive starch grains have been found at sites in Panama dating to 5000 14C years ago. It is now widely cultivated throughout the tropics, but is important mainly in the West Indies. In Southeast Asia it is mainly cultivated in home gardens. Its young rhizomes can be eaten boiled or roasted as a vegetable, and is the primary source of arrowroot starch, which is used as a thickener for savory and sweet dishes. The starch is also used industrially in the manufacture of paper, board, powders, glues, and soaps. The rhizomes are used as fodder and fertilizer, and plants are also grown as ornamentals for their striking brown-purple leaves. Mashed rhizomes are used medicinally to treat wounds and, in French Guyana and Dominica, were used to draw poison from wounds inflicted by poisoned arrows, hence the name.
Changes in raw materials during storage and processing and in food during manufacture preparation and storage
Apart from the above, the micronutrient content of food largely depends on a number of (pre-storage and pre-processing) factors, including genetic variation, degree of maturity, soil conditions, use and type of fertilizer, climate, availability of water, light (day length and intensity), and post-harvest or post-mortem handling. Data on these factors, however, are scarce. As an example, Table 6.6 shows the effect of maturing of tomatoes on their ascorbic acid content. The maximum vitamin content is already reached before maturity.
Close contacts with fertilizers and insecticides have been suggested to play a possible role as environmental hazards in the development of parakeratosis variegata (20) which may be related to MF. Plant-derived diterpene esters have an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-activating tumor-promoting potency. Many active diterpene ester-containing plants are widely used as herbal medicaments in geographic areas, in which the EBV-associated diseases Burkitt lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma and adult T-cell leukemia lymphoma are endemic (21).
In the Far East, soybean meal and other soybean products have been eaten on a regular basis for centuries. This activity over time spread west to the United States. By 1917, soybeans were used in the United States for a variety of purposes including in cooking oils, animal feed, fertilizer, paint medium, and explosives. By the 1940s, the United States was gradually dominating the soybean trade, a trend that was going to continue through the 1960s and into the 21st century. Today, soybeans in their many forms are consumed and utilized throughout the United States, with a major boost from the health food movement. This same trend is also occurring in other countries throughout the world. In fact, the soy industry has become one of the major players in world trade. Many of the soy products mentioned above are still used today. Soybeans are now even being considered as an alternative fuel source to petroleum. Further research in this particular area is still needed, and the cooperation of...
The most significant impact of industrialization on the Virginia tobacco plantations was in the area of field fertilization. Up until the mid 1800s, tobacco farmers used basic livestock manure or compost as fertilizer for their fields, spreading the manure over the tobacco seedbeds by hand or using shovels or special manure spreader wagons pulled by horse or oxen. Broadcast spraying of nitrate of soda (soda nitrate) over the seedbeds was also found to be beneficial to the growing process, giving a more stable, rapid, and abundant growth. This way, about fifteen pounds of nitrate of soda were applied to every 100 square yards of surface. In 1904, Virginia Dark Fire-Cured Tobacco plantations yielded about 800 pounds of tobacco per acre, slightly more than in the late 1800s. By 1904, however, commercial fertilizers were thought to have increased tobacco yield from about 800 pounds to 1,400 pounds per acre (McNess and Mathewson 1905, 222-3). Based upon all of the above, it is clear that...
There are a number of nitrate sources in the soil. For example, nitrate can originate from microbial fixation of nitrogen in symbiotic relationships with leguminous plants, i.e., from the only biological way of binding nitrogen. Other sources are soil pollution caused by the use of fertilizers in agriculture and manure production in cattle breeding and dairy farming. Microbial nitrification is responsible for the conversion of ammonia and urea to nitrate in the soil. The toxicological risks due to intake of nitrate are attributed to its reduction product nitrite.
Modern wheat varieties have short stems, the result of RHt dwarfing genes that reduce the plant's sensitivity to gibberellic acid, a plant hormone that lengthens cells. RHt genes were introduced to modern wheat varieties in the 1960s from Norin cultivars of wheat grown in Japan. Short stems are important because the application of high levels of chemical fertilizers would otherwise cause the stems to grow too high, resulting in lodging (collapse of the stems). Stem heights are also even, important for modern harvesting techniques.
Over the years, it has been proposed that many toxins may cause multiple sclerosis (MS) or worsen its symptoms. Recent reports have associated MS with aspartame use and mercury from dental amalgam, both of which are discussed elsewhere in this book. It also has been claimed that MS is provoked by cosmetics or by chemicals in the environment in the form of pollution, aerosol sprays, low levels of formaldehyde, and fumes from solvents. In food, it has been claimed that additives and low levels of residual fertilizers and pesticides may be important. On the basis of concerns about toxic causes for MS and other diseases, an entire field known as clinical ecology has emerged.