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tion analysis are available in several image-processing programs (e.g., NIH-Image and the Metamorph imaging system; see Table 10.10.1). The Purdue University Cytometry Laboratories Microscopy CD-ROM (see Internet Resources) contains several examples of time-lapse images. The study of dynamic processes extends to four dimensions (4D), when a time series of three-spatial-dimension images is acquired and analyzed. The state of the art in 4D imaging with applications to cytometry has been reviewed by Thomas and White (1998).

Spectral imaging is another form of 3D imaging, where two dimensions are spatial and the third is the fluorescence emission spectrum, representing the intensity as a function of wavelength. Spectral imaging has applications in the fields of quantitative histology and cytogenet-ics, and has been reviewed by Rothman et al. (1998).

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